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38 Cards in this Set

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What 5 conditions must be met for a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium?
1) There must be totally random mating 2) The can be no selection 3) There can be no migration 4) Must be a large population 5) No mutations can occur
Sample
small, randomly selected, group of individuals used to represent the entire population for the purpose of statistics.
If chi-square is greater than the critical value....
then we accept the null hypothesis, the probability (p) is greater than .05 that the result is attributable to random chance.
If chi-square is less than the critical value...
reject null hypothesis, (p) is less than .05, there is less than a 5 percent chance that the results are due to random chance.
Rhaphanus sativus
scientific name for Radish
Hordeum vulgare
scientific name for Barley
Independent Variable
is having the effect
Dependent Variable
is being affected
Gene
basic unit of heredity, codes for a trait
Allele
alternate form of a gene
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
In a large population, in which there is random mating, and in the absence of forces that would change their proportions, the proportion of alleles at a given locus will remain constant.
Selection
the differential reproduction of genotypes, it is the major reason for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and the principal process that leads to evolutionary change.
3 Sentence Summary
Genes mutate. Individuals are selected. Populations evolve.
Directional Selection (purifying selection)
selection against one of the homozygotes, but not the other. tends to favor one allele. may result in fixation of the favored allele due to complete elimination of its alternative.
Stabilizing Selection (heterozygote advantage)
selection against both homozygotes, results in an equilibrium. P (dominant allele) stops changing once a certain value is reached. Results is a stable polymorphism.
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
In a large population, in which there is random mating, and in the absence of forces that would change their proportions, the proportion of alleles at a given locus will remain constant.
Selection
the differential reproduction of genotypes, it is the major reason for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and the principal process that leads to evolutionary change.
3 Sentence Summary
Genes mutate. Individuals are selected. Populations evolve.
Directional Selection (purifying selection)
selection against one of the homozygotes, but not the other. tends to favor one allele. may result in fixation of the favored allele due to complete elimination of its alternative.
Stabilizing Selection (heterozygote advantage)
selection against both homozygotes, results in an equilibrium. P (dominant allele) stops changing once a certain value is reached. Results is a stable polymorphism.
Heritability
proportion of phenotypic variation due to genotypic variation.
Daphnia magna
waterflea
Density
number of conspecifics in a area
Competition
interspecific interaction
Niche
how a thing makes its living; how an organism responds to distribution of resources and competitors.
p < .05
reject null
p > .05
accept null
Complete Count
only practical for small populations or those that need to be watched closely and whose specific numbers need be known (endangered species). Best with slow, sedentary organisms with long generation times.
Direct Sample
count all individuals in a manageable area within the populations range, from this the overall pop. can be extrapolated by using the formula (N sub est) = (N sub c) x (total area [Atot]/area covered by sample [Ac])
Lincoln-Peterson Index
estimated number of individuals (N sub "est") = the number of individuals marked in the first round of captures (N sub m) times the total number of individuals captured in the second round (N sub 2nd) divided by the number of marked individuals in the second round (N sub r) Nest=(Nm*N2nd)/Nr
Bailey's Modification (to the LPI)
add one to N2nd and to Nr, proceed as normal Nest=(Nm *(N2nd +1)) / (Nr +1)
Sampling w/ Removal
is sometimes necessary, bad for the population, results in a decrease in the population which will skew samples done to the same population in the future.
Chi-square
is a statistical test that is appropriate for determining the probability that differences between observed and expected frequencies for different categories may be attributed to random chance (null hypothesis)
Gene Pool
all the genes in a population.
Gause's Law
complete competitors cannot exist. 2 species competing for the same resources cannot stably coexist if all other ecological factors are constant.
Temporal Resource Partitioning
use of same resource at different times
Spatial Resource Partitioning
same resource used in different areas (e.g. different regions of one national park)
Morphological Resource Partitioning
same resource, utilized in different ways, results in a morphological change in one of the two competitors.