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181 Cards in this Set

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Liverworts: no filamentous stage, flat gametophyte. Non-tracheophyte
Hornworts: embedded archegonia, sporophyte grows basally. Non-tracheophyte
Mosses: has a filamentous stage, sporophyte grows apically. Non-tracheophyte
Club Mosses: microphylls in spirals, sporangia in leaf axils. Nonseed Tracheophyte. oldest extant group of vascular plants.
Ferns and Allies: differentiation between main axis and side branches. Nonseed Tracheophyte.
Cycads: compound leaves, swimming sperm, seeds on modified leaves. Gymnosperm. Tracheophyte. Seed Plant.
Ginkgo: deciduous, fan-shaped leaves, swimming sperm. Gymnosperm. Tracheophyte. Seed Plant.
Gnetophytes: vessels in vascular tissue, opposite simple leaves. Tracheophyte. Gymnosperm. Seed Plant.
Conifers: seeds in woody cones, needle-like or scale-like leaves. Gymnosperm. Tracheophyte. Seed Plant.
Flowering Plants: endosperm, carpels, much reduced gametophytes, seeds in fruit.
include mosses, hornworts and liverworts (bryophyta, hepatophyta and anthocerophyta respectively) lack vascular tissue, gametophyte (n) is the dominant generation. sporophyte is dependent upon gametophyte.
sporophyte is dominant generation, sporophyte is largely independent of gametophyte, gametophyte very water dependent (no vascular tissue, swimming sperm)
Club Mosses. ancient group rep. by tree sized plants. have vascular tissue. stems, roots and leaves present. present day species small, moss-sized things. free living, water requiring gametophyte (no vascular tissue, swimming sperm)
ancient relatives tree-sized - now extinct. have silicon in their tissue. only remaining genus is Equisetum (horsetails). free living, water requiring gametophyte.
pteridophyta. most common seedless plant today. have vascular tissue. stems, roots and leaves present. free living, water requiring gametophyte.
include animals and fungi (as well as some unicellular organisms like choanoflagellates). grouped together on the morphological grounds that all have, at some point in their life cycle, a unicellular motile stage bearing a single posterior flagellum and flattened mitochondrial christae.
the vegetative body of a multicellular fungus, composed of hyphae.
long, branching, filamentous cells of a fungus. in most fungi they are the main mode of vegetative growth. yeasts don't utilize them.
incomplete cross-walls that form cell like compartments in the hyphae.
Septate v. Coenocytic
septate means divided, coenocytic means not. asco and basidio have the former (hyphae are septate) chytridio and zygo the latter (hyphae are coenocytic)
most similar to ancestral fungi, only fungus to have flagella at any stage in life cycle. some are unicellular, others have coenocytic hyphae. classed with fungi due to chitinous cell walls and molecular data. no dikrayon. either parasitic or saprobic. most live in fresh water or soil; some are marine. both sex and asex.
apomorphy in zygo, asco and basidio. no gamete cells just gamete nuclei. neither haploid (n) nor diploid (2n) but (n+n) dikaryotic. genes of both parents are present in the dikaryon and can be expressed.
coenocytic hyphae. sex by fusion of gametangia. only one diploid cell - the zygospore. most common in endomycorrhizal associations.
Rhizopus stoloner
black bread mold. zygo.
septate hyphae. possess a basidium - with cell bearing basidiospores. fruiting structures (basidiocarps): mushrooms, puffballs and giant bracket fungi. Most common in ectomycorrhizal associations.
meiosis gives rise to 4 haploid nuclei. basidiospores produce haploid hyphae. hyphae of different mating types meet and fuse forming dikaryotic hyphae. eventually the dikaryotic mycelium produces a basidiocrap. most common in ectomycorrizhal associations.
septate hyphae. produce asci which contain the products of meiosis. ectomycorrhizal.
unicellular fungi found in the phyla basidio, zygo and asco. reproduce by budding, fission or sex. no chytridio yeast.
symbiotic associations of a fungus with a cyanobacterium or unicellular photosynthetic protozoan. serve as bioindicators of air pollution. the fungus of most lichens are asco.
adaptation to land-living in plants. it is a waxy covering that prevents drying.
cases that enclose gametes and prevent them from drying.
Embryo (plant)
young sporophyte contained within a protective structure.
provide plants with protection against mutagenic radiation.
conducts the products of photosynthesis from sites where they are produced to sites where they are stored.
conducts water and minerals from the soil to the aerial parts of the plant.
one of the most abundant organic polymers on earth, second only to cellulose. it is more hydrophobic than the polysaccharide components of plant cell walls and thus conducts water better.
a structure present on many plant species consisting of leaf-like, sporangia-bearing structures densely aggregated along a stem. characterized by a central axis (anatomically a stem) surrounded by spirally arranged or decussate structures that may be modified leaves or modified stems.
An organism that derives its nourishment from nonliving or decaying organic matter. The majority of fungi are saprobes (they are the principal decomposers or cellulose and lignin).
a shared, derived trait for fungi, choanoflagellates and animals. It is much like cellulose except it has an N-acetyl group at C-2.
refers to a form of sexual reproduction involving gametes of similar morphology, differing only in allele expression in one or more mating-type regions
refers to a form of sexual reproduction involving the union or fusion of two morphologically dissimilar gametes (differing either in size alone or in size and form).
penetrate the interior of the root. (zygomycota do this)
wrap around the root tips and act as a sponge.
Lichen Reproduction
Lichens reproduce by fragmentation of the thallus or by means of structures called soredia which are dispersed by air currents and develop into a new lichen.
powdery propagules composed of fungal hyphae wrapped around cyanobacteria or green algae. dispersed by wind.
is the hyphal tip of a parasitic fungus (or of the root of a parasitic plant) that penetrates the host's tissue but stays outside the host cell membrane. They invade the plant and grow mycelium throughout it's structure soaking up nutrients and water.
is a spore contained in an ascus or that was produced inside an ascus. This kind of spore is specific to fungi classified as ascomycetes. An ascus generally contains 8 ascospores (produced by a meiotic division - which turns the original diploid zygote into 4 haploids - followed by a mitotic division - in which each haploid divides forming 4 pairs)
ancestral state. characteristic that is present at the base of the tree.
derived state. characteristic believed to have evolved within the tree
A symmetrical animal...
can be divided into similar halves along at least one plane.
Spherical Symmetry
widespread among protists, body parts radiate out from a central point.
Radial Symmetry
has one main axis around which its body parts are arranged.
Bilaterally Symmetrical
an animal that can be divided into two mirror images along a single plane.
Body Cavities
are fluid filled spaces that lie between cell layers, have a great influence on how an animal moves. 3 major categories: acoelomates, pseudocoelomates, coelomates.
no enclosed body cavity, space between gut and body wall filled with cells called mesenchyme.
connective tissue made of mesenchymal cells and reinforced by collagen, acts as a type of skeleton by providing attachment points for muscles. the mesenchyme (in acoelomates) contains all the internal organs and facilitates the passage of oxygen, nutrients and wastes.
Mesenchymal Cell Types
Fixed cells and Stem cells (which can develop into any kind of cell, help regeneration after damage and are involved in asexual reproduction.
have a pseudocoel, a liquid filled space in which organs are suspended.
All Pseudocoelomates are protostomes but...
not all protostomes are pseudocoelomates.
have a coelom that develops within the mesoderm, lined with peritoneum and enclosed on the inside and outside by muscles.
mouth first. Ecdysozoa, Platyzoa, Lophotrochozoa.
includes arthropods and nematodes. characterized by ecdysis. they produce amoeboid sperm and don't spirally cleave (like the spiralian lophotrochozoans, the other protostome lineage.)
Sessile Acoelomates. aggregation of cells built around a water canal system. Lined with choanocytes whose flagella move water through the canal. draw in water through pores on their surface, water exits through the osculum. separated from other animal lineages earliest.
jellyfish, coral and other stingers, united based on the presumption that their nematocysts have been inherited by a single common ancestor. Antho-(true corals and anemones), Cubo-(box jellies), Hyrdo-(hydra), Scypho-(true jellies) zoans.
Cnidarians are...
diploblastic acoelomates having a single entrance to a blind gut. body plan is designed for a low metabolic rate and the ability to capture large prey, allows for survival in environments where prey is scarce.
have eight comb rows of fused cilia (ctenes) along the side of the animal which beat synchronously and propel the animal through the water. Lack Nematocysts. use sticky colloblasts to capture prey.
Ctenophores are...
also known as comb jellies. superficially similar to cnidarians. have 2 cells layers separated by a thick mesoglea, radial symmetry, feeding tentacles (colloblasts) low metabolic rates. acoelomates. have a complete gut (separate mouth and anus).
Protostome Uniting Characters
CNS with anterior brain. Ventral Nervous System consisting of paired or fused longitudinal nerve cords. Free floating larvae with a food collecting system of compound cilia on multiciliate cells. Blastopore becomes mouth, spiral cleavage in some groups.
2 Lineages of Protostomes
Lophotrochozoans - some cleave spirally. grow by adding to the size of their skeletal elements and use cilia for locomotion
Ecdysozoans - increase size by molting their exoskeletons (ecdysing) and move by mechanisms other than ciliary action.
simplest of the lophotrochozoans, also known as platyzoans. they are bilaterally symmetrical, unsegmented acoelomates. No organs for transporting oxygen to internal tissues, simple organs for excreting metabolic wastes.
digestive tract is a mouth opening into a blind sac (highly branched to increase SA) they feed on living or dead animal tissue. move by beating broad bands of cilia.
bilaterally symmetrical, pseudocoelomates, unsegmented, three cell layers. they're tiny but have highly developed internal organs. possess a complete gut. pseudocoelom acts as hydrostatic skeleton, move by beating cilia.
Lophotrochozoan Lineage
divided into two after divergence of platyhelminthes and rotifera. into the lophophorates and spiralians.
Three surviving lophophorate lineages...
phoronida, brachiopoda, bryozoa.
are primarily marine, filter feeders. have a lophophore. Nearly all are sessile.
ridge around the mouth of lophophorates bearing two rows of hollow ciliated tentacles used for collecting food and exchanging gases.
lophotrochozoan. gave rise to many phyla, more than a dozen are wormlike with bilateral symmetry, no legs and soft bodies that are many times longer than they are wide. body plan allows efficient movement through sandy marine sediment.
Ribbon Worms
carnivorous spiralians, similar in structure to flatworms but have a complete digestive tract. small ones move by cilia, larger ones move by body muscle contraction.
allows an animal to alter the shape of its body in complex ways and to more precisely control its movement. Annelids are segment worms, found in marine, terrestrial and fresh water environments.
Segmented Worms
each segment controlled by a separate ganglion, which are all connected together to coordinate their function, the coelom in each segment is isolated from those in other segments. thin body wall serves as surface for gas exchange and limits annelids to moist environments.
class to which more than half of the annelid species belong. most are marine. possess chitinous chetae on their parapodia. sometimes called bristleworms.
lateral extension from the body wall of most segments on a segmented worm, function in gas exchange and sometimes movement. Setae protrude from each of them and form temporary attachments to the substrate.
Annelids. live in freshwater or terrestrial habitats, have no parapodia, eyes, or anterior tentacles. all are hermaphroditic, eggs are laid in a cocoon outside the adult's body.
range in size from small snails to giant squid, 3 major structural components - foot, mantle, visceral mass.
Foot (Mollusca)
large muscular structure that originally was both an organ of locomotion and support for the internal organs.
Mantle (Mollusca)
fold of tissue that covers the visceral mass of internal organs. often extends beyond the visceral mass to form the mantle cavity.
rasping feeding structure of mollusks..
hinged mollusks, 2 part shell that extends over the sides and top of their body, largely sedentary animals (include scallops, clams, oysters and mussels).
snail and slugs, mostly motile, most species rich and widely distributed of the molluscan classes and are the only terrestrial forms of mollusks.
have modified their mantle into a device that forcibly ejects water from their body cavity allowing rapid movement through the water and control over their buoyancy. enhanced mobility has allowed them to become major predators. have bilateral symmetry and a prominent head. octopus, nautilus, squid.
Shared Derived Traits of Deuterostomes
dorsal nervous system and anterior brain, larvae (if present) have a food collecting system with cells having a single cilium. blastopore becomes anus. radial cleavage in all groups.
Protostomes and Deuterostomes that dominate today's fauna...
have been evolving separately since the Cambrian Period, members of both lineages are bilaterally symmetrical and have cephalization.
Protostomes: Ecdysozoans
molting, flexible cuticles made of collagen, unsegmented exoskeletons.
Protostomes: Arthropods and sister group
chitin in exoskeleton, segmented external skeletons, calcium salts for hardening.
Protostomes: Jointed Appendages
crustaceans - dominant marine group
hexapods - insects, terrestrial descendants of marine crustaceans
myriapods - centipedes and millipedes
chelicerata - arachnids and relatives
Ecdysozoans with wormlike bodies covered by cuticle
3 phyla: kinoryncha, priapulida, chaetognatha. thin cuticle allows for exchange of gases, minerals and water but restricts animals to moist habitat. body supported primarily by hydrostatic skeleton.
Nematophores and Nematodes
two phyla of ecdysozoans that represent a clade with tough external cuticles. nematodes have a thick multilayered cuticle that gives their body its shape.
developed by some ecdysozoans during the Precambrian, it's a strong, flexible, waterproof polysaccharide serving as a rigid body covering giving both support and locomotory functions.
Chitinous Exoskeleton
doesn't allow wormlike movement and requires appendages.
once the dominant line of arthropods in the paleozoic seas before becoming extinct by the mesozoic. had jointed appendages and showed the beginnings of specialization.
Arthropod Appendages
have evolved a variety of forms and functions - walking, swimming, flying, gas exchange, food capture, copulation, sensory perception
Similarities in segmentation patterns among arthropods...
arise from actions of homologous developmental genes (hox genes)
Arthropod Body Plan
characterized by rigid exoskeleton with jointed appendages.
4 Major Arthropod Phyla
crustacea - crustacea
hexapoda - insects
myriapoda - centipedes and millipedes
chelicerata - spiders and ticks
dominant marine arthropods, 3 part body plan: head (segments fused together with 5 pairs of appendages), thorax (multiple segments usually bearing one pair of appendages each), and abdomen (multiple segments, one pair of appendages each)
Arthropods invaded terrestrial environments...
during the devonian period. "preadapted" with a waterproof chitinous exoskeleton.
The Hexapods
are the most prominent colonizers of terrestrial habitats, they are found in all freshwater and terrestrial environments. roughly 1.4 million species described, only a fraction have been discovered.
Hexapods and Crustaceans
separated about 450mya
Hexapod Success
due in part to their wings, which arose only once during insect evolution.
Insect Body Plan
3 basic parts. head (with single pair of antennae) - thorax (with three pairs of legs)- abdomen
Winged Insects
3 major lineages - winged insects that cannot fold their wings back against their body, those that can fold their wings back and undergo incomplete metamorphosis, and those that can fold their wings and undergo complete metamorphosis.
Cannot Fold Wings
Odonata (dragonflies)
Ephemeroptera (mayflies)
Only surving groups of this lineage.

form paleoptera along with the damselfly.
Can Fold, Incomplete Meta
hatchlings are similar to adults
Orthoptera (crickets, roaches, mantids)
Isoptera (termites)
Plecoptera (stoneflies)
Dermaptera (earwigs)
Thysanoptera (thrips)
Hemiptera (true bugs)
Homoptera (aphids, cicadas, leafhoppers)
Can Fold, Complete Meta
life stages specialized for living in different environments.
Neuroptera (lacewings)
Coleoptera (beetles)
Trichoptera (caddisflies)
Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)
Diptera (flies)
Hymenoptera(bees, wasps, ants)
chelicerata. 2 major body regions - cephalothorax and abdomen. anterior bears 2 pairs of appendages modified to form mouth parts, usually four pairs of walking legs. spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks most species rich - members of Arachnida.
Modern Deuterostome Clades
Echinoderms and Hemichordates compose one clade - characterized by a three-part coelom and bilateral symmetry, ciliated larvae. The other clade is the Chordates - ancestors had tadpole like larvae and a three part coelom, bilateral symmetry and a unique dorsal supporting structure.
2 major structural features -- system of calcified internal plates covered by thin layers of skin and muscles and a water vascular system consisting of a network of calcified hydraulic canals leading to tube feet.
Sea Stars
class Asteroidea, tube feet serve as organs of locomotion and sites for gas exchange. they prey on fish, bivalves, gastropods and polychaetes.
evolved a body plan characterized by the notochord (internal dorsal support structure)
are bilaterally symmetrical animals with pharyngeal slits, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, a ventral heart, and tail extending beyond the anus and a notochord.
Three Subphyla of Chordates
Urochordata, Cephalochordata and Vertebrata.
urochordata - may be similar to ancestor of all chordates, all are marine and most are sessile as adults, larva has pharyngeal slits, dorsal hollow nerve cord and notochord, the notochord and nerve cord are lost during meta.
cephalochordata - tiny fishlike animals, notochord extends the length of their body throughout their lives, live partly buried in marine sediments.
have a jointed dorsal vertebral column that replaced the notochord as their primary support.
Vertebrate Body Plan
rigid internal skeleton, two pairs of appendages, anterior skull (with large brain) internal organs suspended in a large coelom, well developed circulatory system (driven by a ventral heart) hox genes duplicated in vertebrate lineage.
include the euglenoids and kinetoplastids.
include the ciliates, dinoflagellates and apicomplexans
include oomycetes, diatoms and brown algae
include fungi, animals and choanoflagellates.
One Common Ancestor..
that diverged at about the same time as the euglenozoans gave rise to the stramenopiles, alveolates, red algae, green algae, plants and opisthokonts.
The availability of water...
is a key difference between the aquatic and terrestrial environments.
Adaptations to Land Living (plants)
spore walls
mutualistic assocations
Alt of Gen
Gametophyte (n) --> egg/sperm produced --> Fertilization --> zygote --> embryo --> Sporophyte (2n) --> meiosos --> spore --> gametophyte.
bryophyta, hepatophyta, and anthocerophyta. (mosses, liverworts and hornworts, respectively) dominant gametophyte, sporophyte dependent upon gametophyte.
dragonfly order, cannot fold wings back against body.
mayfly order, cannot fold wings.
roach, cricket, mantid order, can fold wings back, incomplete metamorphosis
termites, can fold wings undergo incomplete meta
stoneflies, can fold wings incomplete meta
earwig, can fold wings incomplete meta
thrips, can fold wings back, undergo incomplete metamorphosis
true bugs, can fold wings incomplete meta
aphids, cicada, leafhoppers, can fold wings, incomplete meta
lacewings, can fold wings, complete meta
beetles, can fold wings, complete meta
caddisflies, can fold wings complete meta
butterflies and moths, can fold wings complete meta
flies, can fold wings complete meta
bees, wasps, ants, can fold wings complete meta.
Hox Genes
group of genes that specify the anterior/posterior axis of the segment identity of metazoan organisms during early embryonic development. these genes are critical for the proper number and placement of embryonic segment structures.
crustaceans, one of the 4 major arthropod sub-phyla.
insects, one of the 4 major arthropod sub-phyla.
centipedes and millipedes, one of the 4 major arthropod sub-phyla.
spiders, ticks. one of the 4 major arthropod sub-phyla.
translucent, inert jellylike substance that makes up most of the bodies of cnidarians and ctenophores, acts as structural support but has no bone nor cartilage, hasn't very many cells so animals with mesoglea needn't eat very often.
cnidarians, true jellyfish
cnidarians, box jellies
cnidarians, freshwater jellies, polyps.
cnidarians, sea anemones and corals
is the main component of the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans (e.g. crabs, lobsters and shrimps) and insects, the radulas of mollusks and the beaks of cephalopods, including squid and octopuses.
blue-green algae, photosynthetic prokaryotes
pathogens such as salmonella and eschericia, many nitrogen fixing bacteria
true bacteria
flagellate protozoans, eukaryotes, include euglenids and kinetoplastids
freshwater flagellates some of which are photosynthetic, eukaryote.
flagellate protozoans, many are disease causing parasites, eukaryote, have a kinetoplast (DNA containing granule inside the mitochondrion)
Ciliates, very common protozoa, with many short cilia arranged in rows
Apicomplexa, parasitic protozoa that lack axonemal locomotive structures except in gametes
Dinoflagellates, mostly marine flagellates, many of which have chloroplasts
Cortical Alveoli
heterokonts, most are algae, include watermolds, diatoms and brown algae.
Rhodophyta (Red Algae)
eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles, using floridean starch as food reserve, with phycobiliproteins as accessory pigments (giving them their red color), and with chloroplasts lacking external endoplasmic reticulum and containing unstacked thylakoids. Most red algae are also multicellular, macroscopic, marine, and have sexual reproduction.
green algae, photosynthetic aquatic eukaryotes.
eukaryotes, closest relatives to embryophytes.
Diplomonads and Parabasalids...
lack mitochondria.
A kinetoplastid...
is any organism with a single mitochondria in each cell.
are animal parasites, example - plasmodium; parasite responsible for malaria.
The nucleus originated...
due to infolding of the plasma membrane, not due to endosymbiosis.
Protista Clades
Euglenoids, Ciliates, Dinoflagellates, Diatoms, Chlorophyta
Echinoderms and Hemichordates
deuterostomes characterized by a 3 part coelom, bilaterally symmetrical ciliated larvae
ancestors of this clade had tadpole-like larvae, 3 part coelom, unique dorsal supporting structure (notochord)
Two major structural features of echinoderms...
internal calcified plates covered by skin and muscle and a water vascular system leading gout to tube feet.
Phylum Chordata
internal dorsal notochord, enlarged pharyngeal slits. ventral heart, post-anal tail.
Jaws then Lungs...
then amniote egg, then endothermy.