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153 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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number of essential elements
25
Carbon decays to?
Nitrogen.
nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off E
Isotope used as DNA tracers
3H
concentration of H+ ions in pure water @ 25 deg
10-7
CO2 absorbed by ocean becomes what?
Carbonic Acid H2CO3
Lowers pH. Absorps 25% of all man made CO2. Reduces carbonate ion CO32− available for calcification
What is Calcification
formation of Calcium Carbonate CaCO3
CO3,2- is a oxyanion
what react with H2O in air to form acid rain
Sulfate Ion SO42- and Nitrate Ion NO3- give a pH of ~5.2
pH of sea water
~8 slightly basic
define isomer
compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties
cis isomer?
Same side.
Stereoisomerism describing the orientation of functional groups within a molecule. In general, such isomers contain double bonds, which cannot rotate, but they can also arise from ring structures, wherein the rotation of bonds is greatly restricted.
trans isomer?
Opposite sides.
Stereoisomerism describing the orientation of functional groups within a molecule.
Such isomers contain double bonds, which cannot rotate.
one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other
Enantiomer
ə-nan-tee-ə-mər
S left or R right
Carbohydrate is an
Saccharide = organic compound which consists only of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1
Carbohydrates can be viewed as hydrates of carbon, hence their name. Structurally however, it is more accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones.
define isomer
compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties
cis isomer?
Same side.
Stereoisomerism describing the orientation of functional groups within a molecule. In general, such isomers contain double bonds, which cannot rotate, but they can also arise from ring structures, wherein the rotation of bonds is greatly restricted.
trans isomer?
Opposite sides.
Stereoisomerism describing the orientation of functional groups within a molecule. In general, such isomers contain double bonds, which cannot rotate, but they can also arise from ring structures, wherein the rotation of bonds is greatly restricted.
one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other
Enantiomer
ə-nan-tee-ə-mər
Sleft and Right
Glucose monomers
6 carbon ring
Alternate OH from C2
C6 outside ring
glycosidic bond
is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate
alpha-1,4 linkage
This glycosidic bond links C#1 of the left-hand glucose molecule to C#4 of the right-hand glucose molecule.
Helical glucose has which bond types
alpha-1,4 linkage
Glycosidic bond forming a helical and eventually granule structure
Glucose formula
C6H12O6
Ribose formula
C5H10O5
what part of the linear saccharide reacts to form a hemiacetal with a new C-O-C bridge
Aldehyde C=OH and Hydrohyl OH-
For the α anomer of glucose, note the position of the hydroxyl group
OH group down from C1
For the β anomer of glucose, note the position of the hydroxyl group
OH group from C1 is in same orientaton ac C6 CH2OH
Formula for Galactose and Fructose
C6H12O6
same as glucose
Aldose sugar
MONOSACCHARIDE
Aldehyde C=OH
Ketose sugar
Carbonyl forms a Keytone CC=OC
Glycogen define
A substance deposited in bodily tissues as a store of carbohydrates. It is a polysaccharide that forms glucose on hydrolysis
Glycogen is found where
Glycogen is found in the form of granules in the cytosol/cytoplasm in animals and fungal cells, with the primary energy stores being held in adipose tissue
Glycogen is made where
Glycogen is made primarily by the liver and the muscles, but can also be made by glycogenesis within the brain and stomach
Structure of Glycogen
core protein of glycogenin is surrounded by branches of glucose units. The entire globular granule may contain approximately 30,000 glucose units
Links and branches of Glycogen
α1→4 links
α1→6 branches
Cellulose linkage?
β(1→4) linked
straight chain
Cellulose define
An insoluble substance that is the main constituent of plant cell walls. It is a polysaccharide consisting of linear chains of glucose monomers
Difference between cellulose and starch
Cellulose is a straight chain polymer: unlike starch, no coiling or branching occurs, and the molecule adopts an extended and rather stiff rod-like conformation
Glycogen is cleaved by?
Glycogen PhosphorylASE.
Attaches a phospate group
glycosidic bond is a what reaction
dehydration or condensation
B glucose c1 OH group is...
Pointing up
Structure of Chitin
(C8H13O5N)n
contains N and 6 carbons
Linkage of Chitin
covalent β-1,4 linkages
Nearly all double bonds occurring in a fatty acid are?
Cis
same side of isomer
cis double bonds on a fatty acid what?
prevent molecule from tightly packing close enough to solidify
Hydrogenated chains on a fatty acid produce what?
trans double bonds
peanut butter and marg
Omega 3 structure
cis double bond at 3rd carbon.
essential
Steriods?
Lipids.
Characterised by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings
Lipids are amphiphilic, explain
They are a chemical compound which possessing both hydrophilic (water-loving) and lipophilic (fat-loving) properties.
Defense protein
antibody
ovalbumin
storage protein in eggs
hormone protein
insulin
3 motor proteins
Myosin, Kinesin, Dynein
die knee in
Transport protein
Hemoglobin
structure protein
collagen
main component of connective tissue, and is the most abundant protein in mammals.
found in fibrous tissues such as tendon, ligament and skin, and is also abundant in cornea, cartilage, bone, blood vessels, the gut, and intervertebral disc
triacylglycerol has 3 links, what are they?
Ester
C=OOC
What is a peptide bond?
a COVALENT chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, thereby releasing a molecule of water (H2O)
is a polypeptide a protein
No
Proteins require a unique shape
tertiary structure
Endorphins
Natural signalling proteins
Bind to receptor on brain surface
What mimics endorphine
morphine and heroin
two form of secondary structure?
alpha helix and beta pleated sheets
H Bonds between atoms of polypeptide backbone
What bond type form secondary structure?
H bonds
What is involved in tertiary structure
amino acid side chains
Types of tertiary structure bonds
1- hydrophobic = van der walls once formed
2- H bonds
3- ionic bonds
4- covalent = disulfide bridges
which amino acids are switched in sickle cell anemia
Glutamic acid (hydrophilic) is replaced by Valine (hydrophobic)
Which subunit of Haemoglobin is affected by Sickle cell
beta globin
gene point mutation affects the beta subunit
molecule that assists in proper folding of other proteins
chaperonins
require ATP
which technique doesn't require crystalisation
NMR - Nuclear magnetic resonance
uses spectroscopy
investigation and measurement of spectra produced when matter interacts with or emits electromagnetic radiation
explain the Meselson-Stahl experiment
Semiconservative replication means that when the double stranded DNA helix was replicated, each of the two double stranded DNA helices consisted of one strand coming from the original helix and one newly synthesized
using 15N, the non radioactive isotope of 14N
E.coli was cultured in 15N and then transferred to 14N
centrifuged to determine weight difference
DNA is read in which direction?
3' to 5'
bottom to top in our LHS drawing
DNA is polymerised in which direction
5' to 3'
PO4 group at 5' Carbon attaches to the OH group on the 3' carbon
Eukaryote transcription differs how
we have pre-mRNA before mRNA
what is pre-mRNA
Precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) is an immature single strand of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). pre-mRNA is synthesized from a DNA template in the cell nucleus by transcription
Once pre-mRNA has been completely processed, it is termed "mature messenger RNA", "mature mRNA", or simply "mRNA"
mRNA is coded from which strand
template strand
mRNA is identical to which strand
coding strand
Codon?
Sequence of 3 nucleotides which together form a genetic code
Why is the codon code degenerate
64 possible combos produce 20 amino acids
which enzyme polymerises RNA from DNA and what is this process called
RNA polymerase
an enzyme that produces RNA. In cells RNAp is needed for constructing RNA chains from DNA genes as templates, a process called transcription.
transcription
the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA
Which motor protein separates complimentary strands
Helicase (enzyme)
move directionally along a nucleic acid phosphodiester backbone, separating two annealed nucleic acid strands
what is a cotransporter?
an integral membrane protein that is involved in SECONDARY ACTIVE transport. It works by binding to two MOLECULES or IONS at a time and using the gradient of one solute's concentration to force the other molecule or ion AGAINST its gradient.
what is an antiporter
a cotransporter that move entities in opposite direction
what is a synporter
a cotransporter that move entities in same direction





Uniporter?
Uniporter carrier proteins work by binding to one molecule of solute at a time and transporting it WITH the solute gradient.
how can a Uniporter be activated
Voltage
Stress - physical pressure
Ligand
four properties of water as a result of H Bonding
cohesion (adhesion)
insulation ( floating ice)
higher specific heat capacity/temp moderator

versatile solvent
why is cohesion important
transport of water and nutrients in plants
why is waters insulation properties important
prevents cold oceans from freezing and allows life in oceans to survive and evolve
why is a high specific heat capacity important in water
maintains constant temperature to preserve cellular structures and prevent protein denaturation
why is water an important and versitile solvent
allows buffering of cellular contents and wide ranging biochemistry
adenine has what functional group?
NH2
Guanine has which two functional groups?
=O and NH2
difference between Thymine and Uracil
Thymine has two =O and a CH3 group.
Uracil just has two =O's
name cytosine's two functional groups
=O and NH2
what is the consequence of deoxyribose missing the O
Makes sugar backbone more stable
what is a hypothesis
is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon
to be tested by scientific experiment
how do you measure the concentration of a protein in a crude extract
biuret test for peptide bond
colorimetric test
spectrophotometer used
need a calibration or standard curve
machine used in lab to detect colour
spectro photo meter
what is the Biuret test
a colorimetic test depending on the presence of peptide bonds
after absorption reading, what do you use to find protein concentration?
Calibration curve/standard curve
units for protein concentration?
Mg per mL
no mole
three models tested in Meselson Stahl experiment?
Conservative
semi-conservative
Dispersal
features specific to Eukaryotes
True nucleus cf no nucleus
membrane enclosed organelles cf no organelles
linear DNA cf circular DNA
multicellular cf unicellular
Histone protein cf none
cell theory
ALL organisims are composed of one or more cells
cells are the SMALLEST LIVING UNITS of all organisms
cells arise only by DIVISION of a PREVIOUSLY existing cell
5 common features of life
Cells
DNA
RNA
Protein
Membranes
where is protein produced?
Ribosome
made from protein and tRNA
reads mRNA and creates poly peptide chains
name an adapter molecule
tRNA
3 feature of nucleic acid
STORE information - genome
transmit information -TRANSCRIPTION
REPLICATION by base pairing
store, transmit and replicate
shape of Hb curve
Sigmoidal
components of Haem
4N
Histadine
Fe at center
Role of Mb
Myoglobin stores O2
releases only when saturation levels are low
role of Hb
O2 transport
reversibly binds O2
from the lungs to tissues
number of amino acids in Hb and Mb
20
and a prosthetic heme group
haem cofactor = tightly bound
what do enzymes do
change the Kinetics (motion) of a reaction
But not the thermodynamics
what is collagen and how is it structured?
Fibrous glycoprotein
triple alpha helix
in connective tissues like ligaments and tendons
what is a hormone?
name two groups
Chemical messanger
endocrine = blood (thyroid, ovaries, testies)
exocrine = secreted first into duct
what does nuclease do
repairs damaged DNA
what does telomerase do?
adds DNA sequence repeats to the 3' end of DNA strands in the telomere regions
non coding
TTAGGG
what do buffers do and how do they work
MINIMISE changes in concentrations of H3O+ and OH-
consist of acid base pairing which REVERSIBLY bind with H+
explain Order
living things self assemble into organised structures
seperate from the environment = compartmentalise
phospholipids - spontaneous in H2O
what is glycerol
three carbon alcohol with OH- groups attached to each carbon
structure of a fatty acid?
carboxcylic acid with carbon chain
when are monsaccharides synthesised
during photosynthesis.
e.g. glucose
why are carbs harder to store
they dont form globules
OH groups are hydrophilic
what is oxidised to form CO2
C6H12O6
what happens to o2 during respiration
it is reduced to form H2O in the ETC
In mcd matrix
what does NADPH stand for
Nicotinamide
Adenine
Dinucleotide
Phosphate
Hydride
what does ATP stand for
Adenosine
Tri
Phosphate
what is attached to the 6' carbon on glucose?
H2OH
i.e H2COH
on a beta glucose where does the 1' OH- orientate
It is on the same side as the 6' carbon
straigt up
what is maltose and what is it made from
maltose is a disaccharide
made from 2 glucose monomers
alpha 1-4 linkage
why is cellulose not easily broken down?
enzymes that hydrolyse alpha linkages cant hydrolyse beta
what is a gene
a unit of inheritance
where is DNA hydrophobic
On the inside where bases stack
what is the monomer of nucleic acid
nucleotide
which order are adjacent molecules of nucleotides joined
from 3' carbon of the new moiety
joined to the phosphate group
3' to 5'
c and t are what? Spell them
Pyrimidines
Cytosine
Thymine
A and G are what? spell them
Purines
Adenine
Guanine
distance between bases
0.34nm
one cycle of the double helix is how long?
3.4nm
components of chromosomal packing
DNA
histone proteins (8)
Nucleosomes
chromosomes
c and t are what? Spell them
Pyrimidines
Cytosine
Thymine
A and G are what? spell them
Purines
Adenine
Guanine
distance between bases
0.34nm
one cycle of the double helix is how long?
3.4nm
components of chromosomal packing
DNA
histone proteins
nucleosome
chromotin fibres
chromosome
2 properties of ribose cf deoxyribose
ribose is more prone to hydrolysis and is less stable
mRNA will be identicle to
coding stand, except U substituted for T
extra stage of Eukaryote transscription
pre mRNA and RNA processing
what is attached to either end of tRNA
anti codon and amino acid
what is rRNA and what are its 2 roles
Ribosomal RNA
interacts with tRNAs during translation by providing catalytic role (ribozyme)
Structural role in Ribosome
what is snRNA and what does it do?
Small nuclear ribonucleic acid (snRNA) is a class of small RNA molecules that are found within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
pre mRNA splicing
three types of amino acids
polar
non polar
charged (neg = acids) (pos = base)
what affects structure of proteins
pH
salt concenration
Temp
what is needed to renature a protein
chaperonins