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35 Cards in this Set

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Brightfield (Unstained specimen):
(Light Microscopy)
-Passes light directly through specimen. Unless cell is naturally pigmented or artificially stained, image has little contrast.
Brightfield (stained specimen):
(Light Microscopy)
-Staining with various dyes enhances contrast, but most staining procedures require that cells be fixed (preserved).
Phase-contrast:
(Light Microscopy)
-Enhances contrast in unstained cells by amplifying variations in density within specimen; especially useful for examining living, unpigmented cells.
Differential-interference-contrast (Nomarski):
(Light Microscopy)
-Like phase-contrast microscopy, it uses optical modifications to exaggerate differences in density, making the image appear almost 3D.
Fluorescence:
(Light Microscopy)
Shows the locations of specific molecules in the cell by tagging the molecules with fluorescent dyes or antibodies. These fluorescent substances absorb ultraviolet radiation and emit visible light, as shown here in a cell from an artery.
Confocal:
(Light Microscopy)
-Uses lasers and special optics for "optical sectioning" of fluorescently-stained specimens. Only a single plane of focus is illuminated; out-of-focus fluorescenceabove and below the plane is subtracted by a computer. A sharp image results, as seen in stained nervous tissue, where nerve cells are green, support cells are red, and regions of overlap are yellow. A standard fluorescence micrograph of this relatively thick tissue is blurry.
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM):
(Electron Microscopy)
-Micrographs taken with a scanning electron microscope show a 3D image of the surface of a specimen.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM):
(Electron Microscopy)
-This microscope profiles a thin section of a specimen.
Nucleolus:
-In Nucleus
-Nonmembranous organelle involved in production of ribosomes; a nucleus has one or more nucleoli.
Chromatin
-In Nucleus.
-Material consisting of DNA and proteins; visible as chromosomes in a dividing cell.
Nuclear envelope:
-Nucleus
-Double membrane enclosing the nucleus; perforated by pores; continuous with ER.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER):
Network of membranous sacs and tubes; active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes;
-Has rough (ribosome-studded) and smooth regions.
Flagellum:
-(Animal)
-Locomotion organelle present in some animal cells; composed of membrane enclosed microtubules.
Centrosome:
Region where the cell's microtubules are initiated; in an animal cell, contains a pair of centrioles (function unknown)
Cytoskeleton:
-Reinforces cell's shape, functions in cell movement; components are made of protein.
-Includes: Microfilaments, Intermediate filaments, and
Microtubules.
Microvilli:
Projections that increase the cells surface area.
Peroxisome:
organelle with various specialized metabolic functions; produces hydrogen peroxide.
Mitochondrion:
Organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated.
Lysosome:
-(Animal cells only)
-Digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed.
Golgi apparatus:
Organelle active in synthesis, modification, sorting, and secretion of cell products.
Ribosomes:
Nonmembranous organelles that make proteins; free in cytoplasm or bound to rough ER or nuclear envelope.
Plasma membrane:
Membrane enclosing the cell.
Chloroplasts:
-(Plant cells only)
-Photosynthetic organelle; converts energy of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules.
Central Vacuole:
-(Plant cells only)
-Prominent organelle in older plant cells; functions include storage, breakdown of waste products, hydrolysis of macromolecules; enlargement of vacuole is a major mechanism of plant growth.
Tonoplast:
-(Plant cells only)
-Membrane enclosing the central vacuole.
Cell Wall:
-(Plant cells only)
-Outer layer that maintains cell's shape and protects cell from mechanical damage; made of cellulose, other polysaccharides, and protein.
Plasmodesmata:
-(Plant cells only)
-Channels through cell walls that connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells.
Things in animal cells, but not plant cells:
-Lysosomes
-Centrioles
-Flagella (is in some plant sperm)
Things in plant cells, but not animal cells:
-Chloroplasts
-Central vacuole and tonoplast
-Cell wall
-Plasmodesmata
Membrane-Enclosed Organelles:
Nucleus, E.R., Golgi Apparatus, Transport Vesicle, Lysosome/Vacuole, Mitochondrion, Chloroplast, and Peroxisome.
Non-Membrane enclosed Organelles:
Ribosome
Cytoskeletal organelles: Microtubules, Centrosomes, cilia/flagella; microfilaments, microvilli, intermediate filaments.
Proteasomes.
Membrane-Enclosed Organelles:
Nucleus, E.R., Golgi Apparatus, Transport Vesicle, Lysosome/Vacuole, Mitochondrion, Chloroplast, and Peroxisome.
Non-Membrane enclosed Organelles:
Ribosome
Cytoskeletal organelles: Microtubules, Centrosomes, cilia/flagella; microfilaments, microvilli, intermediate filaments.
Proteasomes.
Endomembrane system includes:
The nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various kinds of vacuoles, and the plasma membrane (not actually an endomembrane in physical location, but nevertheless related to the endoplasmic reticulum and other internal membranes).
Cytoskeleton classes:
-Actin filaments have structural and motility roles.
-Microtubules have structural and motility roles.
-Intermediate filaments have only structural roles.