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22 Cards in this Set

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What's an isotope?
forms of an element with different number of neutrons, therefore a diff. mass.
what is a hydrogen bond?
bond bt/w H of one molecule and O of another molecule.
what kind of bond occurs when electrons are not shared equally?
polar covalent
cohesion?
collectively, H bonds hold water together
pH levels above 7 are Acid or Base?
Base
carbon atoms form how many bonds? what kind of bonds?
4 covalent bonds
draw a carbonyl group and a carboxyl group.
carboxyl has a hydroxyl group connected (COOH) and a carbonal group does not (CO).

both have a double bond with O
draw an amino group. What are the properties?
NH2

act as a base; HYDROPHILIC
Draw a sulfhydryl group
-SH

2 can stabilize protein structure
HYDROPHILIC
draw a phosphate grp.
properties?
OPO3

1.can transfer energy,
2.makes a molecule an anion
HYDROPHILIC
properties of Carboxyl groups
acidic properties
found in ionic form in cells
Ketones and Aldehydes.
these are carbonyl groups.
ketones are w/in the carbon skeleton, and
Aldehydes are at the end of a carbon skeleton.
Hydroxyl group properties?
polar b/c of O atom drawing electrons
attracts H2O molecules
when 2 amino acids join together to form a larger molecule, what happens?
water molecule is lost (dehydration/condensation rxn)
what are the 4 main classes of large biological molecules
lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids
what is hydrolysis?
the insertion of a water molecule to connect to monomers, making a polymer. (the bonds of the monomers are broken by the water; a Hydrogen and Hydroxyl group split up and each attach to different monomer)
how do you classify a carbohydrate; or how many carbons long is the C-skeleton?
3 to 7
what is the shape of glucose and most other sugars in aqueous solutions?
a ring
name a monosaccharide, a disaccharide, and a polysaccharide.
M- Glu, Fru, Gal
Di- Sucrose, Lactose
Poly- Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose
what are glucose's 2 ring forms? which one is present in starch? Cellulose?
alpha (coiled/helical)
beta (straight)
starch- alpha
Cellulose- beta

humans can digest starch
name the pyramidines and purines
pyramid: cytosine, thymine, uracil

purine: adenine, guanine
which nitrogenous base is not found only in RNA but not DNA?
uracil