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46 Cards in this Set

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the roots, stems, leaves, and most reproductive parts of angiosperms and gymnosperms are a)haploid or b)diploid?
b) diploid
sporophyte
diploid plant body; produces anthers and ovules in angiosperm- in which cells undergo meiosis--> resulting in haploid spores
gametophyte
the plant's haploid generation, result of mitotic division of sporophyte
In male gametophytes, the haploid spore cells divide into two cells called:
the tube cell and generative cell
the surviving spore from the meiosis of the ovule central cell undergoes mitosis to produce..
an embryo sac
pollination
delivery of the pollen to stigma of carpel (most angiosperm depend on animals for this)
double fertilization
after pollination, the pollen grain germinates on anther- the tube cell becomes the pollen tube-goes down into ovary; generative cell divides mitotically-makes 2 sperm cells- both go down the pollen tube into embryo sac. One sperm cell fertilizes the embryo, making it a diploid (2n) zygote, the other sperm cell's nucleus becomes a part of the central cell of the embryo sac, forming a triploid (3n) nucleus.
endosperm
triploid cell divides to form this nutrient-rich multicellular mass, which nourishes embryo until it become seedling
simple fruits
develop from flower with a single carpel and ovary
aggregate fruit
develops from flower w/many carpels
multiple fruit
develops from group of separate flowers tightly clustered together
vegetative reproduction involves:
fragmentation and then regeneration
phototropism
growth of shoot towards light; adaptive response
auxin
-stimulates stem elongation; affects root growth, differentiation, branching; develoment of fruit, apical dominance; phototrpism and response to gravity; found in meristems of apical buds, young leaves and embryos w/in seeds
cytokinins
affects root growth, differentiation; stimulates cell division and growth; stimulates germination; delays aging; made in roots transported to other organs
gibberellins
promotes seed germination, bud development, stem elongation, and leaf growth; stimulates flowering and fruit developent; affectrs root growth and differentiation; in meristems of apical buds and roots, young leaves, and embryos
abscisic acid
inhibits growth; closes stomata during water stress; helps maintain dormancy; in leaves, stems, roots, green fruits
ethylene
promotes fruit ripening; opposes some auxin effects; promotes/inhibits growth and development of roots, leaves, flowers, etc.; found in ripening fruits, nodes of stems, aging leaves and flowers
tropisms (3 types)
directed growth responses that cause parts of a plant to grow toward or away from a stimulus; phototropism, gravitropism, thigmotropism
photoperiod (2 categories)
relative lengths of day and night, used to detect time of year; short-day plants, long-day plants
phytochromes
proteins w/a light absorbing component; absorbs red and far-red light; at sunrise, Pr converted to Pfr (which resets bio. clock of plants)
systematic acquired resistance
defense response thats nonspecific, providing protection against a diversity of pathogens for days
What are the 4 main abiotic factors?
Solar energy, water, temperature, wind
population density
number of individuals of a species per unit area or volume
mark-recapture method
(number marked in first catch x total second catch)/ recaptured marked individuals
dispersion pattern (3 types)
way individuals are spaced within their area; (most common: clumped; random; uniform)
exponential growth model; logistic growth model
G = rN; G = rN ((K-N)/K)
Factors affecting population growth in natural populations:
competition for food; availability of space; increased risk of disease; predation; stress; abiotic factors
4 defining characteristics of a community
diversity, form of vegetation, response to disturbances, trophic structure
2 factors affecting biodiversity
species diversity, relative abundance of each species
competitive exclusion principle
formed by Gause; populations of 2 species cannot coexist in a community if their niches are nearly identical; one population will eventually outcompete and eliminate the other
Batesian mimicry
palatable harmless species mimics an unpalatable harmful one
Mullerian mimicry
2 unpalatable species from same community mimic each other
nitrogen fixation
conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia (N2 - NH3)
denitrification
conversion of soil nitrates to atnospheric nitrogen
nitrification
conversion from ammonium to nitrates
habituation
loss of response to stimulus after repeated exposure
imprinting
learning that's irreversible and limited to a sensitive time period in an animal's life; often results in a strong bond btwn new offspring and parents
association
behavioral change resulting from link btwn behavior and reward/punishment; trial/error learning
imitation
learning b observing and mimicking others
problem solving
inventive behavior in response to new situation
optimal foraging
feeding behavior should provide maximal energy gain with minimal energy expense and minimal time spent foraging
agonistic behavior
ariety of threats or actual combat that settles disputes between indiviudals in a population
dominance hierarchy
ranking of individuals based on social interactions
territoriality
marking territory; associated with uniform patterns
altruism
behavior which reduces an individual's fitness while increasing fitness of recipient (ex: queen)