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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who is Gregor Mendal?
Father of medern gentics; Used pea plant experiments to prove geneology
What is a Locus?
the location for a specific gene on a chromosome.
What are alleles?
Are at corresponding loci on a pair of homologous chromosomes. All molecular forms of the same gene.
Presence of two of each type of chromosome (a pair of homologs) in a cell nucleus at interphase
Diploid Number
Total # of chromosome number in cells that have a pair of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species (46; 23 pairs)
Total chromosome number in cells that have one of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species
What type of cells have haploid number of chromosomes and where do they come from?
eggs and sperm, in ovaries and testes. 23 chromosomes.
Dominant and Recessive genes
An allele is dominant when its effect on a trait masks that of any recessive allele paired with it. Capital letters stand for dominant, Lowercase shows recessive.
refers to a person's observable traits
refers to the particular alleles that an individual carries
P, F1 , F2
P- refers to pure bred parents; F1 refers to the first generation offspring; F2 for second-generation offspring.
What type of alleles will F1 generation have?
All offspring will show heterozygous alleles. (Aa)
What will be the ratio offspring of two F1 generation parents
(AA, Aa, Aa, aa) 3:1 of the children will show the dominant trait.
Monohybrid Cross
Uses F1 generation of parents that bred true or different forms of a trait (AA x aa)
Theory of Segregation
Diploid cells have pairs of genes, on pairs of homologous chromosomes. The two genes of each pair are separated from each other during meiosis, so they end up in different gametes.
Independent Assortment
As meiosis ends, genes on pairs of homologous chromosomes have been sorted out for distribution into one gamete or another, independently of gene pairs of other chromosomes.
Dihybrid Cross
Crossing of two F1 generations for 2 traits.
any chromosome of a type that is the same in males and females (22 pairs in humans)
Sex Chromosomes
xx for female
xy for male
xxy Kinefelter Syndrome; sterility, mild mental impairment
Preparation of an individual's metaphase chromosomes sorted by mength, centromere location, and shape. Best in blood, best during metaphase becuase the chromosomes are the most condensed.
What are the four types of chromosomial Aberations
deletion, inversion, translocation, duplication
Describe Chromosomial Deletion
Loss of a chromosome segment; a mutation involving the loss of one or more bases of a DNA molecule
Describe Chromosomial Inversion
mutation in which a section of the chromosome becaomes oriented in reverse
Describe Chromosomial Translocation
a repositioning of a stretch of DNA to a new chromosomal location with no molecular loss.
Describe Chromosomial Duplication
DNA sequence repeated several to many hundreds or thousands of times
(n+1) chromosome example would be Downsyndrom for Chromosome 21
Turner Syndrome
xo chromes (girls born without the second x chrome
Franklin technique
X-ray difraction
DNA structure
double helix, base pairing, tridementional structure, double helix, backbone made of phosphate and sugar
The ladder of DNA is made from
AT, GC Adenine, Gaunine, Thymine, Cytosine
second stage of protein synthesis. Info encoded in an mRNA transript guides the synthesis of a new polypeptide chain from amino acids; occurs at ribosomes
First stage of protein synthesis, in which a stand of RNA is assembled on a DNA templete (gene)
gene mutation
small scale change in the nucleotide sequence of a gene that can result in an altered protein product
Funtions mRNA
carries protein synthesis building instructions
Three types of RNA
mRNA- messenger RNA- protien buiilding instructions
rRNA- ribosomal RNA- a component of ribosomes
tRNA- transfer RNA- deleiver amino acids one at a time to a ribosome