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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone)
(where? function? cause?)
Neurohypophysis- peptide
-Reabsorption of H20 from urine to blood
(where? function[2]? cause[2]?)
Neurohypophysis- peptide
*stretching of cervix
-uterine contraction
-milk let-down
GH (Growth Hormone= Somatotropin)
(where? Function(3 steps)Cause?)
Adenohypophysis - protein
*Metabloic Imbalance
-1. GHRH; somatostatin, inhibits glucose use
-2. GH
-3. Somatomedins (in liver) stimulates fat use

Protein Synthesis
TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone=Throtropin)
(where? Function(3 steps)Cause?)
Adenohypophysis- glycoprotein
* low body temperature
-3.Throxine (Thyroid)

Increases BMR (basal metabolic rate)
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone= Corticotropin)
(where? Function(3 steps)Cause?)
Adenohypophysis- peptide
-3.Glucocorticoids (adrenal cortex)

Metabolic Adjustment to Stress
(where? Function(3 steps)Cause?)
Adenohypophysis- protein

Milk Production
FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone)
(where? Function(3 steps)Cause? Outcome? 2 possible)
Adenohypophysis- Glycoprotein
-3.Estrogen (female)
Male (no counterpart)

Ovarian Follicle Development (female)
Spermatogenesis (male)
LH (Luteinizing Hormone)
(where? Function(3 steps)Cause? Outcome? 2 possible)
Adenohypophysis- Glycoprotein
-3.Estrogen (females)
Testoterone (Males)

Corpus Luteum Development (females)
Testoterone Secretion (males)
(where? Function(3 steps)Causes(2)? Outcomes(3)?)
Derivative of Tyrosine and iodine, gene activation
*Low Body Temperature
-1. TRH
-2. TSH
-3. Thyroxine

Activates Genes for metabolic enzymes, increases BMR

Increases ATP synthesis by mitochondria

necessary for proper development of skeleton muscles and nervous system
Calcitonin (C Cells)
(where? Function Cause? Outcome?)
Thyroid- Peptide
*High blood Ca2+

Decreases blood Ca2+by stimulating osteoblasts.
(where? Function Cause? Outcome?)
Parathyroid- Protein
*Low Blood Ca2+

Increases blood Ca2+ by stimulating osteoclasts.
Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla
Epinephrine (adrenalin) 70%
Norepinephrine (noradrenalin) 30%
-derivatives of Tyrosine

*Sympathetic Stimulation

Enhance Sympathetic Efftects
(where? Function? Cause[2]? Outcome[2]?)
Adrenal Cortex- mineralocorticoid
*High blood K+ (and/or)
*Activated Angiotensin

Active Secretion of K+ from urine to blood
Active reabsorption of Na from urine to blood
(where? Function(3 steps)Cause? Outcome[4]?)
Adrenal Cortex- glucocorticoid


decreases protein synthesis
increases fat use
decrease glucose use
Insulin (B Cells)
(where? Function? Cause[3]? Outcome[2]?)
Pancreas - Protein
*parasympathetic stimulation
*high blood glucose
*high blood amino acids

Stimulates cellular uptake of glucose
Stimulates Protein Synthesis
Glucagon (A Cells)
(where? Function? Cause[2]? Outcome?)
Pancreas- Peptide
*Sympathetic Stimulation
*Low Blood Glucose

Increases blood glucose by glycogenolysis
Properties of Blood (4)
1. Transport
2. pH Balance (7.35-7.45)
3. Hemostasis
4. Immunity
Leucocytes (WBC) types (2)
Granulocytes types (3) (percentage of WBCs)(with function)

Develop Where
1. Neutrophils (60-70% WBCs)
2. Eosinophils (2-3%)
-phagocytize precipitated antigens
3. Basophils (<1% WBCs)
-form mast cells (responsible for inflamation)

Red Bone Marrow
Agranulocytes types (2) (percentage of WBCs)(with function)(develop where?)
1. Monocytes (4-5% WBCs)
-form macrophages, phagocytosis, detect infections
2.Lymphocytes (20-30%)
-Immune Response

Develop in lymphoidal Tissue
Stages of Hemostasis (3)
1. vascular phase-substances release from cut blood vessels to clampl shut vessel
2. platelet phase- stick to collagen on walls in vessel to form platelet plug
3. Coagulation -clotting,damaged cells release
All blood cells develop from this stem cell
RBC Production- cause? where?
1. Kidneys detect low O2 in blood
2. Kidneys Secrete erythropoietin, which causes stem cells to develop into RBCs
RBC Development (where/when)
Hemocytoblast, stem cell

Yolk Membrane
Liver (month 2)
Red Bone Marrow (Month 5)
Plasma (what is it, contains?, what proteins)
Liquid Portion of Blood
90% H20
Conataining NA Cl HCO3 K Ca ions

(protein reserve, colloid osmotic pressure)
-Globulin (multiple types)
Types of Globulins (3)
1. Alpha and Beta (colloid osmotic pressure,steroid hormone transport)
2. Gamma (antibodies)
3. Fibrinogen (Clotting)
Overall Elements of blood
-Erythrocytes(RBCs)(40-46% blood volume)
-Thrombocytes (Platelets) from megakaryocytes
-Leucocytes (WBCs)
Mast cell secrete histamine
2. Increased Capillary Permeability
Immunity (Macrophages Role In)
-Detect and Present Antigens
-Activate Helper T-Cells
-Stimulate Activated Helper T-Cells
Immunity (B-lymphocyte's role in)
-bind to free antigens secrete antibodies
-activate complement IL4-6
Immunity (Helper T-Lymphocyte's Role in)
-Activate B-cells
-stimulate activated B-cells
-stimulate activated cytotoxic T-cells
Immunity (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte's Role in)
-Identify infected cells by contact
-secrete cytokines (lymphokines)
Steps in Complement of B-lympocyte to antigen (5)
1. Lysis of bacterium
2. Complement Cascade
3. Chemotaxis
4. Inflammation
5. Opsonization
HIV effect on immunity
Knocks out helper T-lymphocytes
Prosencephalon (Division 2)
1. Telecephalon
2. Diencephalon
Telecephalon structures 3.
1. Olfactory Tracts
2. Basal Nuclei (reg. posture and balance unconciously)
3. Cerebrum-control all higher functions
Diencephalon Structures 3
1. Epithalamus
2. Thalamus
3. Hypothalamus
Epithalamus function
melatonin/ diurnal cycles
Thalamus function 3
1.All sensory information comes through thalamus except smell
2. Crude Sensation
3. Motor Connections
Hypothalamus Functions 5
1. Controls Autonomic Nervous System
2. Controls Hypophysis (pituitary gland)
3. Regulates body temperature
4. Regulates eating and drinking
5. Emotional States limbic system
Mesencephalon functions 2
pupil reflex
eye tracking
Rhombencephalon Divisions 2
1. Metencephalon
2. Myelencephalon
Metencephalon structures 2
1. Pons (pneumotavic center and apneustic center) breathing
2. Cerebellum- fine moter detail control.
Myelencephalon Structure and its purposes 5
Medulla Oblongata
1. Cardiac Center
2. Vasomotor Center (blood vessels
3. Respiratory Rhythmicity Centers (breathing)
4. Fixed motor patterns (i.e. sneezing swallowing)
5. Reticular Activating system-sleeping and waking
Sensory Spinal Tracts types (3) and characteristics
1. Medial Lemniscal Tracts
-fine touch, proprioception
-well myelinated
-crosses over in medulla
2. Spinothalamic Tracts
-crude touch, pressure, pain hot cold
-less well myelinated
-crosses over in spinal cord
3. Spinocerebellar Tracts
-Unconcious Proioception (only lower limbs)
-Well Myelinated
-Some Crossover in Spinal Cord
-Some Do Not Cross Over
Motor Spinal Tracts types and characteristics
1. Pyramidal
-Upper motor neurons in motor and premotor areas
-cross over in medulla (cranial nerve)or spinal cord (spinal nerve)
-fine coordination, concious movement
-damage= flaccid paralysis
-Upper motor neurons in midbrain, medulla, reticular formation
-most crossover in midbrain some do not crossover
-posture balace unconcious movement, eye tracking
-damage = spastic paralysis
Nerve I
Olfactory Nerve
Cerebellum < Olfactor Epithelium (Smell)
Nerve II
Optic Nerve
diencephalon< retina (vision)
Nerve III
>inferior oblique, inferior rectus, superior rectus, medial rectus
Nerve IV
Trochlear Nerve
Midbrain <(propriocption)
>superior oblique
Nerve V
Trigeminal Nerve
Pons < Skin of face and scalp nasal and oral mucosa, teeth
>chewing muscles
Nerve VI
Pons < Proprioception
>lateral rectus
Nerve VII
Pons<Anterior 2/3 of tongue
>Facial Muscles submandibular and sublingual salivary gland lacrimal glands
Nerve VIII
Pons< Cochlea (Hearing)Vestibular apparatus
Nerve IX
Medulla<Posterior 1/3 of tongue carotid sinus (blood pressure
>tongue, pharynx, parotid salivary glands
Nerve X
Medulla< Pharynx and Larynx
>Pharynx and Larynx.
80% of parasympathetic ANS motor axons
Nerve XI
Medulla C1-C4< proprioception
>sternocliedomastiod, trapezius
Nerve XII
Medulla C1-C3< proprioception
>intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles
Spinal Nerve Pairs
31 Total:
8 Cervical
12 Thoracic
5 Lumbar
5 Sacral
1 Coccygeal
Strip or band of skin that sends sensory informatoin to a pair of spinal nerves
Plexuses 4
1. Cervical-C1-C4 neck shoulders phrenic nerve to diaphragm
2. Brachial-C5-C8 T1 upper limbs
3. Lumbar-L1-L4 Abdomen andterior sides of lower limbs
4. Sacral- L4,L5, S1-S4 lower back posterior sides of lower limbs.
Division of the Autonomic Nervous System
1.Sympathetic (fight, flight or fright)-energy expending
2. Parasympathetic (homeostasis, usually dominant)
Energy Conserving
Individual Difference between sympathetic ANS and parasympathetic ANS
See sheet 6 of the notes
Transducers Chagne Energy from one form to another
mechanoreceptors- hearing
chemoreceptors- taste smell
photoreceptors- vision
Characteristics of Rods
1. Dim Light
2. black and white
3. low acuity
4. more in perpherial