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23 Cards in this Set

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What is "DNA"?
deoxyribonucleic acid. It is the genetic material.
What are "genes"?
The various units that govern charateristics at the genetic level.
What is "sequence"?
Genes contain their information as a sequence of nucleotides.
What does "G" stand for?
Guanine
What does "A" stand for?
Adenine
What does "T" stand for?
Thymine
What does "C" stand for?
Cytosine
What does "U" stand for?
Uracil
Each nucleotide contains 3 things. What are they?
1) a phosphate group
2) a central dooxyribose sugar
3) one of four nitrogenous bases
What do you call a string of nucleotides?
Polynucleotide chain
How are any two nucelotides attached?
phosphodiester bond
What is the function of a phosphodiester bond?
It connects the phosphate group of one nucleotide to the deoxyribose sugar or another.
On which end (1' through 5') is the phosphate group of a single unattached nucletide?
5'
A string of nucleotides always has 2 ends that are unattached. What are they? (1' through 5')
5' & 3'
What is a complementary DNA molecule?
A DNA molecule with complementary bases would have a T instead of a A, or a C instead of a G.
What are examples of base pairs?
A & T
C & G
What does it mean when two DNA strands are said to be antiparallel to each other?
The two strands of a DNA molecule are complementary, but in the opposite orientation. i.e. 5'3' & 3'5'
What is the central dogma of molecular biology?
The information stored in DNA is used to make RNA, which in turn makes proteins
Which happens first in the process from DNA to RNA to protein...transcription or translation?
transcription
What is translation?
Translation is the process of converting RNA to proteins
What is gene expression?
The process of using the information stored in DNA to make an RNA molecule and then a corresponding protein
What is alternative splicing?
The inclusion or exclusion of different exons to form different mRNA transcripts
What is an Allele?
An allele is any viable gene or DNA sequence that can occur for the same gene.