Study your flashcards anywhere!
Download the official Cram app for free >
 Shuffle
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Alphabetize
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Front First
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Both Sides
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Read
Toggle OnToggle Off
How to study your flashcards.
Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key
Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key
H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key
A key: Read text to speech.a key
19 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
138. What is an isolated system in thermodynamics?

A system is isolated if it doesn't exchange either energy
or material with its environment. 

139. What is a closed system in thermodynamics?

A system is closed when it can exchange energy, but no
material with its environment. 

140. What is an adiabatic transition?

The transition where no exchange of heat occurs, is
called adiabatic. 

141. What kind of quantities are called extensive?

Additive quantities are called extensive.


142. What is the entropy of a chemically pure, solid crystal at
absolute zero temperature? 
S = 0


143. Can entropy be negative?

No, it cannot.


144. What is the entropy and temperature of a single particle
with velocity v? 
It is not interpreted. Thermodynamics only deals with
systems, i.e. with multitude of particles. 

145. Is chemical potential an extensive or an intensive
quantity? 
It is an intensive quantity.


146. Two bodies are in thermodynamic equilibrium (T1=T2).
Can exchange of energy occur between them? 
Yes, but the average amount of energy transmitted by
the bodies to each other is equal. 

147. What is the entropy change (ΔS) in an isolated system
undergoing a reversible cycle? 
ΔS=0


148. Is a living system an isolated, closed or open system?

Open.


149. Is the second law of thermodynamics valid for a living
system? 
Yes, but it can be applied only if the living system and
the surrounding environment is treated as an isolated system. 

150. When is a mixture in thermodynamic equilibrium?

If the chemical potential of all of its components is the
same at each point of the system. 

151. What is the classical thermodynamic definition of
entropy? 
ΔS = Qrev/T
ΔS: entropy change, Qrev: heat taken up reversibily, T: absolute temperature 

152. Define the relationship between entropy and
thermodynamic probability! 
S = k ln W
S: entropy, k: Boltzmann constant, W: thermodynamic probability 

153. Define thermodynamic probability!

Thermodynamic probability of a macrostate is the
number of microstates associated with the macrostate. 

154. What is the range of values of thermodynamic
probability (W)? 
1 ≤ W < ∞


155. What is the range of values of mathematical probability
(P)? 
0 ≤ P ≤1


156. Which state functions determine the direction of a
chemical reaction in an a., isobaric (p=constant) and b., isochoric (V=constant) transition? Give the definition of these functions! 
a., Gibbsfree energy, G=HTS
b., Helmholtzfree energy, F=ETS where H and E are the enthalpy and the internal energy of the system, respectively, and T and S are the absolute temperature and the enthropy of the system, respectively. 