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### 19 Cards in this Set

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 138. What is an isolated system in thermodynamics? A system is isolated if it doesn't exchange either energy or material with its environment. 139. What is a closed system in thermodynamics? A system is closed when it can exchange energy, but no material with its environment. 140. What is an adiabatic transition? The transition where no exchange of heat occurs, is called adiabatic. 141. What kind of quantities are called extensive? Additive quantities are called extensive. 142. What is the entropy of a chemically pure, solid crystal at absolute zero temperature? S = 0 143. Can entropy be negative? No, it cannot. 144. What is the entropy and temperature of a single particle with velocity v? It is not interpreted. Thermodynamics only deals with systems, i.e. with multitude of particles. 145. Is chemical potential an extensive or an intensive quantity? It is an intensive quantity. 146. Two bodies are in thermodynamic equilibrium (T1=T2). Can exchange of energy occur between them? Yes, but the average amount of energy transmitted by the bodies to each other is equal. 147. What is the entropy change (ΔS) in an isolated system undergoing a reversible cycle? ΔS=0 148. Is a living system an isolated, closed or open system? Open. 149. Is the second law of thermodynamics valid for a living system? Yes, but it can be applied only if the living system and the surrounding environment is treated as an isolated system. 150. When is a mixture in thermodynamic equilibrium? If the chemical potential of all of its components is the same at each point of the system. 151. What is the classical thermodynamic definition of entropy? ΔS = Qrev/T ΔS: entropy change, Qrev: heat taken up reversibily, T: absolute temperature 152. Define the relationship between entropy and thermodynamic probability! S = k ln W S: entropy, k: Boltzmann constant, W: thermodynamic probability 153. Define thermodynamic probability! Thermodynamic probability of a macrostate is the number of microstates associated with the macrostate. 154. What is the range of values of thermodynamic probability (W)? 1 ≤ W < ∞ 155. What is the range of values of mathematical probability (P)? 0 ≤ P ≤1 156. Which state functions determine the direction of a chemical reaction in an a., isobaric (p=constant) and b., isochoric (V=constant) transition? Give the definition of these functions! a., Gibbs-free energy, G=H-TS b., Helmholtz-free energy, F=E-TS where H and E are the enthalpy and the internal energy of the system, respectively, and T and S are the absolute temperature and the enthropy of the system, respectively.