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19 Cards in this Set

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Define Radial
Which animals show these?
Animal body plan having four or more roughly equivalent parts around a central axis
ie. Starfish, jellyfish, octopus
Define Bilateral Symmetry
Which animals show these?
Body plan with a main axis from anterior to posterior end, separated into right and left sides
ie. lobster, fish, etc
Give the 16 phyla names and give examples of animals in them and give their characteristics.
(FAB ARMS CAME RAV)
Flatworms, Arthropods, Birds

Amphibians, Reptiles, Mollusks, Sponges

Chordates Cnidarians, Annelids, Mammals, Echinoderms

(Nematoda)Roundworms, Amniotes, Vertebrates

Flatworms - bilateral, hermaphrodites, organ systems (flukes, tapeworms)
Annelids - segmented worms (earthworms, leeches, marine worms)
Birds - diverged from small dinosaurs, feathers developed from reptile scales and are insulation and flight mechanisms
Amphibians - all require water at some time, lay eggs in H2O, less efficient lungs than other vertebrates, breath through skin (Frogs, toads, salamanders)
Reptiles/Amniotes - tough scaly skin, adapted to life on land, amniote eggs, water-conserving kidneys (crocodiles, turtles, snakes, lizards)
Mollusks - Bilateral, soft-bodied, many have a shell, mantle secretes shell and drapes over the body (gastropods, cephalopods, bivalves, chitons, etc snails)
Sponges - no symmetry tissues or organs, reproduces sexually, not motile, microscopic swimming larva
Cnidarian - hydrostatic skeleton (water pressure), saclike gut, medusa and polyp forms, nerve net (jellyfish, corrals, hydras)
Chordates- notochord supports body, nervous system develops from dorsal nerve chord, embryos have tail that extends past anus (tadpoles)
Amniotes (above with Reptiles)
Mammals - hair, mammary glands, teeth, developed brain, extended care for young
Echinoderms- body wall has spines, tube feet, no brain, adults are radial (sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars)
Roundworms-bilateral, complete digestive system, most free-living, some parasitize plants, animals and humans (Elephantitis)
Arthropod-invertebrate (no spine), group with greatest # species, four lineages (spiders, mites, crabs, shrimp, insects, centapedes)
Vertabrates-shift from notochord chordate to vertebral column, nerve chord expanded into brain, jaws, fins evolved into limbs, gills evolved into lungs
What adaptations of arthropods make them so successful? (6)
jointed appendages to move better
division of labor (ie catepillar to butterfly)
hardened exoskeletons
fused and modified body segments
specialized sensory structures
What adaptations of vertebrates (chordates) make them more successful at life?
notochord to vertebral column
nerve chord extended into brain
evolve jaws
fins into limbs
gills into lungs
What adaptations of amniotes make them more successful?
Adapt to life on land by:
tough scaly skin, internal fertilization, amniote eggs, water-conserving kidneys
What are the basic characteristics of chordates? (4) Give examples of each of the animals in each of the classes of chordates. (5)
Notochord supports body
Nervous system develops from dorsal nerve chord
Embryos have phyarynx with Slits
Embryos have tail that extends past anus
Animal classes:
1. jawed fishes - cartinaginous fishes (sharks, rays)
bony fishes (lungfishes, lobe-finned fishes)
2. Amphibians
3. reptiles
4 birds
5 mammals
What are the basic characteristics of monotremes? Give examples of animals in this order.
egg-laying mammals (platypus, birds)
What are the basic characteristics of marsupials? Give examples of animals in this order.
pouched mammals (kangaroo)
What are the basic characteristics of placentals? Give examples of animals in this order.
largest group (monkeys)
What are the 5 characteristics of animals?
1 multicelled heterotrophic (can't make its food) eukaryotes (has nucleus)
2 Requires oxygen for aerobic respiration
3 Reproduce sexually, perhaps asexually
4 Motile at some stage
5 Undergoes development
Radial Symmetry
Animal body plan having four or more roughly equivalent parts around a central axis
Bilateral Symmetry
Body plan with a main axis from anterior to posterior end, separated into right and left sides
Coelom
In most animals, a cavity between the gut and body wall that is lined with a tissue
Hydrostatic Skeleton
Of many soft-bodied invertebrates, a fluid-filled cavity or cell mass against which contractile cells act (water pressure)
Cephalization
Evolutionary, the concentration of sensory structures and nerve cells in a head
hermaphrodites
male and female body parts
exoskeleton
External skeleton
Monophyletic
descended from a common ancestor in which the derived trait that characterizes the group first evolved