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29 Cards in this Set

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What are the RNA polymerases in the prokaryote and what do they make?
There is only one.....it's name is RNA Polymerase.
What is the prokaryotic RNA polymerase made up of?
The RNA polymersae is made up of two Alpha, one Beta, and one Beta prime subunit.
What are the types of RNA polymerase in eukaryotes?
RNA polymererase I
RNA polymererase II
RNA polymererase III
What does RNA polymerase I produce and where is it located?
RNA polymerase I is located in the nucleolus and makes the rRNA.
What is the one type of rRNA that is not made by RNA polymerase I, and what is it made by?
5S rRNA is made by RNA polymerase III in the nucleoplasm.
What does RNA polymerase II make and where is it located?
RNA polymerase II is located in the nucleoplasm and synthexizes hnRNA and some snRNA
What does RNA polymerase III make and where is it located?
RNA polymerase III is located in the nucleoplasm and synthesizes tRNA, some snRNA, and 5S rRNA.
What is a good example of a drug that inhibits RNA polymerase in prokaryotes?
rifampin
What are a couple important aspects about rifampin (side effects)?
orange body fluids (incl. urine), and induces cytochrome p450
In prokaryotes, what is the process of RNA polymerase binding to the DNA?
It recognizes both the -35 concensus sequence and the TATA box consencus sequence, both of which are located in the promoter region. RNA polymerase can only do this binding to the DNA with the help of prokaryotic SIGMA FACTOR.
What is the location of the TATA box relative to the start point of transcription?
-10
What is significant about the 3' UTR (untranslated region) of a gene in prokaryotes?
Toward the end of the 3' UTR there is a rich CG region followed by a string of 6 Thymines's
How does the cell know where to stop transcribing the DNA to RNA in a prokaryote?
The GC rich region followed by 6 T's signals the end of transcription. The mRNA folding back on itself along with the 6-8 Uracils signals termination
What is the significance of the 5' UTR on prokaryotic mRNA?
It contains the Shine-Dalgarno sequence which is necessary for the rRNA to bind to the mRNA and start translation
Other than transcribing hte GC rich area followed by UUUUUU, what is another way for transcription to stop in prokaryotes?
Rho-dependent termination required participation of rho factor which binds to the new mRNA and moves toward the RNA polymerase which has paused at a termination site.
What is polycistronic?
when several genes are put together under the same promoter.
What are the three stop codons which terminate translation?
UAA
UGA
UAG
In eukaryotic cells, what are the consencus sequences in the promoter region and where are they located?
The consensus sequences are the TATA box, located at -25, and the CAAT box, located at -70.
What is the significance of the 3' UTR in eukaryotic cells?
It contains the poly A sequence which is AAUAAA
What is the raw copy mRNA of the DNA known as?
hnRNA
or
primary transcript RNA
In eukaryotes, what are the modification done to the hnRNA before the mRNA can be translated?
1. Addition of a methyl guanine cap is added while the RNA is being transcribed
2. Addition of the 200-300 base long poly A tail
3. Splicing of introns
What enzyme adds the poly A tail to an eukaryotic cell mRNA?
Poly A polymerase
How are the introns removed in eukaryotic mRNA?
Splicosome up of snRNA combined with some proteins
What is a spliosome also knows as?
Snrnp
Whereas sigma factor is needed for RNA polymerase binding in prokaryotes, what is needed in eukaryotes?
Transcription Factors
Important one is TF2D
What is the prokaryotic Ribosome's subunits and what is the total ribosome known as?
50S and 30S subunits make up the 70S ribosome
What is the eukaryotic Ribosome's subunits and what is the total ribosome known as?
60S and 40S subunits make up the 80S ribosome
What is the shape of tRNA?
clover leaf
What is the consencus sequence on the acceptor arm of the tRNA?
CCA