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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the central dogma of molecular biology?
DNA, in addition to being REPLICATED, is TRANSCRIBED to RNA which is TRANSLATED to PROTEIN
What are the phase of mitosis?
Pro, Meta, And and Telephases
During which phase of the Cell cycle does DNA replication take place?
S phase
Where does transciption and translation take place in the cell?
transcription = nucteus
Translation = cytoplasm
How big is an RNA copy from small portion of DNA?
10000 to 100000 bases
Which cells go through the G0 phase?
Cells that have stopped cycling, such as muscle and nerve cells
What id happening during the G2 phase?
proofreading of replicated DNA and synthesis of proteins needed for mitosis, such as microtubule proteins.
What makes up interphase?
G1, S, and G2 (everything except M phase)
What is the sugar involved with RNA?
RNA = Ribose
DNA = 2-Deoxyribose
How many carbons are in Ribose?
Ribose = 5
2-Deoxyribose = 5
What are the important carbons of Ribose?
Why are these important?
The important carbons are:
1, 3, 5

1 = Where we will attach a base
3 = part of phosphodiester bond that links nucleotides
5 = part of phosphodiester bond that links nucleotides
What is the difference between Ribose and 2-Deoxyribose?
On ribose there is an OH group on Carbon number 2, whereas on 2-Deoxyribose there is no OH group on Carbon 2, hence the name DEOXYribose.
What are the two catagories of bases found in nucleic acids?
purines and pyrimidines
Which bases are purines?
Adenine and Guanine
Which bases are pyrimidines?
Cytosine, Uracil, and Thymine
Structurally, what distinguished purines from pyrimidines?
Purines have 2 rings whereas pyrimidines have only 1 ring
What is the distinguishing characteristics of the pyrimidines?
one ring, and with very little change you can convert Uracil to both Cytosine and Thymine
What is the distinguishing feature of Adenosine?
Adenosine only has an amino group, and it has 2 rings because it is a purine.
Structurally, what is the difference between Thymine and uracil?
If you simply add a methyl group to Uracil, you produce Thymine
What methylates purines and pyrimidines?
Not SAM, it is FOLATE
What is a distinguishing feature of cytosine and what is it's significance?
Cytosine has an amino group and thus can be deaminated.
What hapens to deaminated cytosine?
When a cytosine loses the amino group it becomes uracil.
What makes up a nucleotide?
One or more Phosphate groups plus a nucleoside.
What makes up a nucleoside?
Nucleosides are formed by convalently linking a base to a sugar.
What carbon of the sugar does the base bind to?
carbon 1
What carbon do the phosphate groups bind to?
5' carbon
What is the charge of DNA?
Do to what?
What is this important?
Negative charge due to the negatively charged phosphate group.
allows us to isolate DNA and RNA by electrophosesis