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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Mb composed of?
A heme group + globin protein
How many turns does Mb have?
8 turns
How many AAs does Mb consist of?
His F8 means?
Histidine is the 8th AA residue in the F coil.
What is the importance of the NO?
it is a vasodilator, and it also inhibits platelet aggregation.
Hemoglobin consists of .... polypeptide chain
4, Tetrameric
How many helical segments do the alpha & beta chains of Hb have?
1- 7 segments in alpha helices.
2- 8 segments in beta-helices.
Adult hemoglobins are:
Hb A1
Hb A2
What does the HB A1 consist of?
2 alpha chains
2 beta chains
What does Hb A2 consist of?
2 Alpha chains
2 Delta chains
What does Hb F consist of?
2 Alpha chains
2 Gamma chains
Embryonic Hb is made of?
2 alpha chains
2 epsilon chains
How many heme prothetic groups can we find in Hb and Mb?
Hb --> 4
Mb --> 1
allosteric inhibitors of Hb are:
1- Decrease in the PH.
2- Increase in co2 concentration.
3- an increase in 2,3 bisphosphoglycerate concentration.
An example of the allosteric activators of HB is
What do we add to replenish 2,3 BPG in stored blood?
dihydroxyacetone phosphate
What is the location of Hb & Mb?
Hb: RBCs
Mb: Muscles
What si the function of each of HB & Mb?
Hb: O2 carrier.
Mb: O2 reservoir
What is the structural difference between Hb & Mb?
Hb: Tetramer(Quaternary structure)
Mb: Monomer(No Quaternary)
Can Mb carry any molecules other than O2?
No, but Hb can.
Which protein shows oxygen cooperativity?
Which proteins has a higher O2 affinity?
Dissociation curve of Hb is
Dissociation curve of Mb is
Is Mb affected by allosteric effectors?
Abnormalities in the primary sequence of AAs in the globin chains leads to
Abnormalities in the rate of synthesis of globin results in
Sickle cell Anemia is a result of
Substitution of Glutamate with Valine in the beta chains, position # 6
Hb S is
Sickle cell anemia
The Average lifespan of RBCs HbS
10-15 Days
Which AAs are substituted in Hb C?
#6 glutamate is substituted by Lysine residues, results in mild chronic hemolytic anemia.
What are the types of thalassemia?
Alpha thalassemia
Beta Thalassemia
Collagen represents about ..... of body proteins
What are the carbohydrate residues that collagen contains?
What are the AAs in which collagen is rich?
What does the hydroxylation of proline and lysine require?
Ferrous Iron
Molecular Oxygen
What is the AA sequence in collagen?
The basic structural unit of collagen is
The three polypeptide chain of tropocollagen are
supertwisted around each other
Where is Type I collagen present?
Bones, Skin, Tendons, & heart valves
What's special about type I collagen?
It contains two identical polypeptides but the third is different
Where can we find type II collagen?
Vitreous humor
Where can we find type III collagen?
Blood vessels
Where can we find type IV collagen?
Basement membrane
Lens capsule
Type II, III, IV show
Identical three polypeptides
Where can we find type V collagen?
exocytoskeleton(three different polypeptides)
Vitamin C deficiency leads to scurvy because
It is important for the hyroxylation of lysine and proline, which increase the stability of collagen.
Osteogenesis imperfects is due to:
single glycine mutation, glycine in very important for the stability of collaen.
Where can we find Alpha keratin?
Epidermal layer of skin
What gives keratin fibers their strength?
The great number of present disulfide bonds, Keratins are rich in cysteine residues.
Give an example of beta keratins?
Fibrion, which is a silk protein, is rich in glycine and alanine
Name some tissues which are rich in elastic fibers
various ligaments
the lungs
vascular tissues
the basic subunit of elastin fibrils is
How does tropoelastin differ from tropocollagen
It has many lysine and few proline residues.
The cross-links of elastin involve
Desmosine joins tropoelastin chains into
arrays that can be stretched reversible in all directions
Salting out depends on
decreased solubility of different proteins at high salt concentration
Why is ammonium sulfate used in salting out?
because it's very soluble and is effective at lower concentrations than any other salt
1/4 saturated ammonium sulfate solution perciptates
Half saturated ammonium sulfate solution perciptates
Fully saturated ammonium sulfate solution perciptates
Dialysis membranes are made of
cellophane or celloidin
Ultracentrifugation depends on
protein mass
Dialysis depends on
proteins' large size
Lipoproteins are ultracentrifugated into
chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL.
Ribosomes are separated into
30 S & 50 S subunits in prokaryotes.
Electrophoresis separates proteins according to their
The bands of proteins are stained by .... after electrophoresis
ponceau S
coomassie blue
At pH of 8.3, plasma proteins will have a .... charge
negative, they will migrate to the anode
Isoelectric focusing separates proteins depending on the basis of
the difference in their isoelectric points
amino acids, carboxylic acids
The pH gradient is established by placing the proteins in an
aqueous mixture of synthetic low weight ampholytes
What's the importance of SDS in electrophoresis?
It denatures the proteins and forms negatively charged micelles with proteins
SDS electrophoresis depends on
molecular weights
resins are
beads which have pores of differents sizes
In Ion-exchange chromatography resins carry .... charge and are called
Negative cation exchangers
Positive anion exchangers
In affinity chromatography, ligands are
covalently boned to resins
myfibrils consist of
Myosin is
Assymetric hexamer consisting of two heavy chains and four light chains
A hapten is
a small molecule that can't alone eelicit an antibody response
Epitope is
a small molecular structure within the antigen to which the antibody binds