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62 Cards in this Set

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Hormone substances that act at a distance
Endocrine factors
Hormone substances that act close to the cells that sectrete them
Paracrine Factors
Hormone substances that act directly on the cells that secreted them
Autocrine Factors
Chemical messengers that mediate intercellular communication
Cytokines
Growth Factors
Hormones
Carrier proteins for peptide hormones prevent
hormone destruction by plasma proteases
Carriers for small hydrophilic AA hormones prevent
filtration through renal glomerulus
Receptors for most AA, peptide hormones are located
on the plasma membrane
Activation of receptors by AA hormones (1st messengers) leads to INTRACELLULAR production of
2nd messengers
The main 2nd messengers
cAMP
Ca2+
IP3
DAG
Proteins are Phosporylated on Ser and Thr by
PKA (cAMP dependent)
PKC (DAG activated)
There are receptor Ser or Thr
Kinases
The blood vessel that carries hypothalamic-releasing hormones to the pituitary is called the
portal vein
One capillary bed is in the hypothalamus and the other is in the
Anterior Pituitary
Hypothalamus - pituitary
+ Releasing Hormones
GHR - Growth Hormone Rel. H
TRH
GnRH
CRH
PRF
The principal source of IGF-1
Liver (other tissues secrete and contribute)
IGF-1 regulation at the hypothalamus stimulates secreteion of___ which inhibits secretion of ______ at the pituitary
Somatostatin
Growth Hormone
Direct IGF-1 action on the pituitary leads to down-reg of
Growth Hormone
Anterior Pituitary Hormones that directly affect the body
Growth Hormone
Prolactin
MSH
Anterior Pituitary homrones that regulate other glands
TSH
ACTH
FSH
LH
Stimulates the development of mammary glands and production of milk
Prolactin
Stimulates melanocytes to sythsize melanin
MSH
Hormone that acts thyroid - thyroxin
TSH
Hormone that acts adrenal cortex - cortisol
ACTH
Hormones that act ovaries and testes - sex hormones and gamete production
FSH
LH
Promotes gluconeogenesis and is hyperglycemic. Promotes AA uptake in cells.
Growth Hormone
Lack of ability to secrete GH - respond well toi GH therapy
GH-def. dwarfs
Lacj IGF-1 response to GH but not metabolic effects - def. in post-receptor manner
Pygmies
Production of excessive GH before ipiphyseal closure of long bones
Gigantism
GH excessive after epiphyseal closre
Acromegaly
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
Oxytocin
ADH
Anterior Pituitary - TSH - Thyroid gland - (metabolic rate)
Thyroxin
Anterior pitutary - ACTH - Adrenal Cortex - (raises glucose levels in the blood)
Cortisol
Anterior pituitary - FSH, LH - Gonads -
FSH - gamete production
LH - sex hormone production
testosterone, estrogen, progesterone
Protein receptors -
Highly ______ for hormone
Specific
Protein receptors -
High affinity for
Binding (high Ka, low Kd)
Protein receptors -
Low numbers per cell
Saturable
Protein receptors -
__________ in responding tissues
Localized
Protein receptors -
Binding to hormones is _____ and ________
noncovalent and reversible
Three Major Groups of peptide membrane Receptors
Linked to ion channels
Serpentine linked to G proteins
Growth Factor, cytokines - 1 tansmembrane domain - NZ linked
The signaling cascades of membrane-bound receptors invole PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION by
Kinases
G Proteins -
Binding of H induces
Conformational change in receptor
G Proteins -
Activated Receptor Binds to
Ga Subunit
G Proteins -
G Proteins -
Binding Induces conf. change to Ga, GDP dissociates and is replaced by _______, Ga dissociates
GTP
G Proteins -
H dissociates from receptor: Ga binds to effector ______
Activating it
G Proteins -
________ of GTP to GDP; Ga dossociates
Hydrolysis
B-adrenergic receptors bind ______
Epinepherine and adrenaline
B-adrenergic receptors are found in
Mucsle
Liver
Fat Cells
B-adrenergic receptors are activated when
energey reserves in these tissues are mobilzed
B-adrenergic receptors have 7 membrane spanning
alpha helices - serpentine
B-adrenergic receptors - as long at GTP remains bound to Ga subunit - it will continually
Activate adenylate cyclase
Some bacterial toxins work to inactivate (Cholera)
GTPase activity - keeping it active - too much cAMP
Ras binds to GDP/GTP and has
GTPase activity
RAS - Ser/Thr Kinase Cascade - activates ________
MAP Kinase - Transcription Factor
The Pancreas secretes NZ into the Duodenum through the
Pancreatic duct (Exocrine Gland)
Group of cells in Pancreas that secrete Insulin and Glucagon
Islets of Langerhans
Islets are endocrine because they are
Ductless
Insulin has a ____ receptor and is produced by the
tyrosine kinase receptor
B-cells
Insulin Promotes
Removal of glucose from the blood for stoage as glycogen
Insulin inhibits ______ use as an energy source
buildup of fats and proteins
Glucagon is produced by the
a-cells
Glucagon is secreted When?
between meals to maintain glucose concentration
Glucagon raises
level of glucose in the blood