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58 Cards in this Set

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B-complex deficiencies often result in what?
dermatitis, glossitis, diarrhea
thiamine: TPP
vitamin B1
riboflavin: FAD, FMN
vitamin B2
niacin: NAD+
vitamin B3
pantothenate: CoA
vitamin B5
pyridoxine: PP
vitamin B6
cobalamin
vitamin B12
this vitamin is a constituent of visual pigments
vitamin A/retiol
deficiency in this vitamin can lead to night blindness, dry skin, and impaired immune response
vitamin A
excess of this vitamin can cause arthralgias, fatigues, headaches, skin changes, sore throat, allopecia
vitamin A
deficiency of this vitamin is seen in beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome; seen in alcoholism and malnutrition
vitamin B1
which beriberi is associated with polyneuritis, muscle wasting?
dry
which beriberi is associated with high-output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy) and edema?
wet
in thiamine pyrophosphate, this vitamin serves as a cofactor for oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-keto acids (pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate) and as a cofactor for transketolase in the HMP shunt
vitamin B1
deficiency of this vitamin leads to angular stomatitis, cheilosis, corneal vascularization
vitamin B2 (the 2 C's)
this vitamin serves as a cofactor in oxidation and reduction (e.g. FADH2)
vitamin B2 (FAD and FMN are derived from riboFlavin (B2=2 ATP))
what are the symptoms of pellagra/vitamin B3 deficiency?
3 D's: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia (also beefy glossitis)
Hartnup disease (increased tryptophan absorption), malignant carcinoid syndrome (increased tryptophan metabolism), and INH (decreased vit. B6) can all cause what vitamin deficiency?
pellagra (vitamin B3/niacin)
which vitamin is derived from tryptophan using vitamin B6 and is a constituent of NAD+ and NADP+?
vitamin B3/niacin (NAD derived from Niacin; B3 = 3 ATP)
deficiency of this vitamin can cause dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia, and adrenal insufficiency
vitamin B5 (pantothenate)
this vitamin is a constituent of CoA (a cofactor for acyl transfers) and component of fatty acid synthase
vitamin B5 (pantothen-A is in Co-A)
deficiency of this vitamin can cause convulsions, hyperirritability (deficiency inducible by INH and oral contraceptives), and peripheral neuropathy
vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
this vitamin is converted to pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor used in transamination (e.g. ALT, AST), decarboxylation, and heme synthesis
vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
deficiency of this vitamin can cause macrocytic, megabloblastic anemia; neurologic symptoms (optic neuropathy, subacute combined degeneration, paresthesia); and glossitis
vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
where is vitamin B12 found?
only in animal products
this vitamin serves as a cofactor for homocysteine methylation (transfers CH3 groups as methylcobalammin) and methylmalonyl-CoA handling
vitamin B12
where is vitamin B12 stored?
primarily in the liver; synthesized only by microorganisms
what might the abnormal myelin seen in B12 deficiency be due to?
decreased methionine or increased methylmalonic acid (from metabolism of accumulated methylmalonyl CoA)
what is the most common vitamin deficiency in the U.S.?
folic acid
deficiency of this vitamin can cause a macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia often without neurologic symptoms
folic acid
this vitamin serves as a coenzyme 1-carbon transfer & is involved in methylation reactions; it is important for the synthesis of nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA
folic acid
what is the folic acid precursor in bacteria? what kind of drugs are analogs of it?
PABA; sulfa drugs and dapsone are PABA analogs
deficiency of this vitamin is marked by dermatitis & enteritis, and is caused by antibiotic use and ingestion of raw eggs
biotin (avidin in eggs avidly binds biotin)
this vitamin is a cofactor for carboxylations:
pyruvate -> oxaloacetate
acetyl-CoA -> malonyl-CoA
proprionyl-CoA -> methylmalonyl-CoA
biotin
this vitamin is necessary for hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis
vitamin C (C Cross-links Collagen)
this vitamin facilitates iron absorption by keeping iron in Fe2+ reduced state (more absorbable) and is also necessary as a cofactor for dopamine -> NE
vitamin C
what form of vitamin D is found in milk?
D2 = ergocalciferol
what form of vitamin D is formed in sun-exposed skin?
D3=colecalciferol
what is the storage form of vitamin D?
25-OH D3
what is the active form of vitamin D?
1, 25 (OH)2 D3
deficiency of this vitamin causes rickets in children (bending bones), osteomalacia in adults (soft bones), and hypocalcemic tetany
vitamin D
this vitamin increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate
vitamin D
excess of this vitamin causes hypercalcemia, loss of apetite, and stupor
vitamin D
what disease can be associated with vitamin D excess?
sarcoidosis - epitheliod macrophages convert vitamin D into its active form
deficiency of this vitamin is associated with increased fragility of erythrocytes
vitamin E (E-Erythrocytes)
deficiency of this vitamin can cause neonatal hemorrhage with increased PT and PTT but normal bleeding time
vitamin K
what are the vitamin K dependent clotting factors?
II, VII, IX, X, proteins C & S
what drug is a vitamin K antagonist?
warfarin
this vitamin catalyzes gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on various proteins concerned with blood clotting
vitamin K
what synthesizes vitamin K?
intestinal flora - deficiency can occur after prolonged broad-spectrum antibiotic use
deficiency of this vitamin is associated with delayed wound healing, hypogonadism, decreased adult hair, and may predispose to alcoholic cirrhosis
zinc
what is the rate-limiting reagent in ethanol metabolism?
NAD+
by what order kinetics does alcohol dehydrogenase operate?
zero-order
what does disulfiram inhibit? what accumulates?
inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase; acetaldehyde accumulates, contributing to hangover symptoms
what is the result of the increased NADH/NAD+ ratio in the liver that is caused by ethanol metabolism?
causes diversion of pyruvate to lactate and OAA to malate - inhibits gluconeogenesis and leads to hypoglycemia
what is responsible for the hepatic fatty change seen in chronic alcoholics?
increased NADH/NAD+ ratio - shunts away from glycolysis and toward fatty acid synthesis)
this is protein malnutrition resulting in skin lesions, edema, liver malfunction (fatty change)
Kwashiorkor (small shild with swollen belly)
MEAL: malabsorption, edema, anemia, liver (fatty)
this is protein-calorie malnutrition resulting in tissue wasting
marasmus