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30 Cards in this Set

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Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
Pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl Co A- (Needed to enter the TCA cycle)
Lactase
Lactoseà galactose+glucose

Lactose intolerance in deficiency in the enzyme
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Puts a phosphate on glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and also NAD+à NADH
Lactate dehydrogenase
Pyruvate+NADHàLactate+NAD+

This makes the NAD+needed for Glycolysis.
UDP-glucose-4-epimerase
Converts UDP-galactose to UDP-glucose.
Galactose 1-phosphate uridylyl transferase (common deficiency)
Transvers Uridyl to galactose from UDP glucose and phosphorylates the glucose.

(glucose 1-phosphate)
Aldolase (type B)
Converts Fructose 1-phosphate to Dihydroxyacetone-p and glyceraldehyde. (slow reaction)
Fructokinase
Converts fructose to fructose 1-phosphate (fast reaction)
Glucagon
Causes glycogen cascade in liver. Increases blood suger.
Glucose 6-phosphatase
Converts glucose 6-phosphate to GLUCOSE
Fructose 1,6 Bisphosphatase
Converts Fru-1,6-bisphosphatase to Fru-6-P
Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase
Converts Oxaloacetate to PEP

(adds a phosphate and removes a carbon) Uses GTP
Pyruvate Carboxylate
Converts pyruvate to Oxaloacetate (uses ATP)

Biotin is an important cofactor for most carboxylases
Hexokinase
Glucose to glucose 6-phosphate
Phosphoglucomutase
Interconverts glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate
UDP glucosepyrophosphorylase
Adds UTP to glucose 1-phosphate
Adenyl Cyclase
Turns ATP to c-AMP
Phosphorylase
Glycogen subunit to glucose 1-phosphate
Phosphorylase kinase
Phosphorylates phosphorylase and activates it.
Protein Kinase A
Phosphorylates phosphorylase kinase and activates it.

Inactivates glycogen synthase by phosphorylating it.

Also turns off protein phosphatase
Creatine Kinase
Can transport phosphoryl group from creatine phosphate to ADP to form ATP
Adenylate Kinase
2ADP converted to ATP+AMP (reversible) used to regenerate ATP in contracting muscle
Epinephrine
Binds to B-adronergic receptor and activates G-protein which activates adenyl cyclase (turns ATP to c-AMP). All this activates protein kinase A!
phosphodiesterase
Inactivates c-AMP (Hydrolysis)
Adenylcyclase
Turns ATP to c-AMP
Toxins can also inhibit complex 4
Cyanide, Azide and CO.

CO binds to hemoglobin and also with the cytochrome that interacts with transported oxygen.
2-4-dinitrophenol
Chemical uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation
Lactate dehydrogenase
Pyruvate+NADHàLactate+NAD+

This makes the NAD+needed for Glycolysis.
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Puts a phosphate on glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and also NAD+à NADH
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
Pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl Co A- (Needed to enter the TCA cycle)