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23 Cards in this Set

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What is does the oxygen uptake number tell us about ATP demand?
the higher the number the more the tissue requires oxygen for use in the production of ATP
Rank in order of increasing oxygen demand: BRAIN, HEART, KIDNEY, LIVER, SKELETAL MUSCLE (REST & MARATHON)
resting skeletal muscle < liver < brain < heart < skeletal marathon < kidney
why does the kidney require so much ATP production?
ion transport to maintain gradients
Which cells are involved in HCl synthesis?
parietal cells
Why isn't zantac as effective as proton pump inhibitors?
because zantac inhibits signal transduction pathways… and therefore the pathway can be activated through alternate means
How does a proton pump inhibitor work?
They bind to this proton pumps, a.k.a. H+/K+ ATPase, and they decrease their ability to hydrolyze ATP and its ability to put protons in the stomach, and thus decrease the stomach acid
What is Nexium (Protonix)?
a proton pump inhibitor used for gastric esophageal reflux disease
Besides asenic siphoning off glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, where else can arsenic can have adverse effects?
what are the symptoms for OCTN2 (plasma membrane sodium-dependent carnitine transporter)?
cardiomyopathy, weakness of skeletal muscle at age 2-4, Renal threshold ~2, intermediate carnitine levels, carnitine uptake absent in skin,
What is the treatment for OCTN2?
oral carnitine @ pharmacological doses, 2) plasma carnitine ~ normal, 3) muscle carnitine approaches 5-10% normal
What is the HIF-1∂ gene?
HIF-1∂ is a set of genes that is turned on in response to hypoxia (running, high altitudes, etc), where glycolysis and erythroporiesis responds to the lack of oxygen.
How is the HIF-1∂ controlled?
pVHL tumor suppressor, which, in the presence of oxygen marks hydroxylated HIF-1∂-OH for ubuiquination
How is this system hijacked by tumor cells?
pVHL is inhibited
What is Von Hipel-Lindau disease?

How does one get Hipel-Landau disease?
1. The disabling of pVHL ubiquinating gene…
2. It is inherited (w/ variable penetrance)
What are macronutrients?
what are micronutrients?
vitamin and minerals
what are the fat soluble vitamins?
What are the water soluble viatmins
B1, niacin, riboflavin, patothenate
what are water soluble vitamins used as?
precursors of coenzymes (energy releasing enzymes)
what are the 4 ways a person acquire a vitamin deficiency?
dietary insufficiency, poor food preparation, increased metabolic needs, poor absorption from the gut
which 2 TCA cycle enzymes uses thiamin (B1)?
pyruvate dehydrogenase (pyruvate --> acetyl CoA rxn) and α-ketogluterease-dehydrogenase (∂-ketoglutarate --> succinyl CoA rxn)
What is Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome? (symptoms, causes)
Seen in alcoholics: Symptoms: ATAXIA: (gait impairment, unclear speech, hand incoordination)
What if the differential diagnosis is ambiguous? (Emergency room Rx of confused or comatose patient… thought to be an alcoholic?)?

What should you give first?
Naloxone, thiamine, intravenous dextrose (glucose)

Glucose first