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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Catabolism
degradation
Anabolism
biosynthesis
Autotrophs
synthesize all their cellular constituents from simple molecules such as H2O, CO2, NH3 and H2S

-2 possible energy sources (chemolithotrophs and photoautotrophs)
Chemolithotrophs
get E from oxidation of inorganic compounds such as NH3, H2S and Fe2+
Photoautotrophs
get E from photosynthesis (light energy powers the transfer of electrons from inorganic donors to CO2 to produce carbs (CH2O)n)
Heterotrophs

(And what do they depend on??)
-get G by oxidation of organic compounds
-ultimately depend on autotrophs
Obligate aerobes
obligated to usage of O2
Obligate anaerobes
poisoned by O2
Anaerobes
use oxidizing agents such as sulfate or nitrate
Facultative anaerobes
can grow in either presence or absence of O2
Facultative
either or can work depending on circumstances
Metabolites
reactants, intermediates and products of metabolic pathways
What are the major free energy sources of anabolic pathways?
ATP and NADPH
Citric Acid Cycle
Acetyl-CoA goes to CO2 by oxidation
What reduced coenzymes does the Citric Acid Cycle produce?
NADH and FADH2
Reduction
-gain of electrons
-loss of O
-gain of H
Oxidation
-loss of electrons
-gain of O
-loss of H
Oxidative phosphorylation
ADP + Pi → ATP

(powered by the free energy from oxidation of metabolic fuels)
Glycolysis
carbohydrate degradation pathway
Mitochondrion
C,O,F,A

CA cycle
OP (Oxidative Phosphorylation)
Fatty acid oxidation
Amino Acid breakdown
Cytosol
GX, PPP, FA↑, gluconeogenesis
Lysosomes
enzymatic digestion of cell components and ingested matter
Nucleus
-DNA replication and transcription
-RNA processing
Golgi apparatus
-postranslational processing of membrane and secretory proteins
-formation of plasma membrane and secretory vesicles
Rough ER
synthesis of membrane-bound and secretory proteins
Smooth ER
lipid and steroid biosynthesis
Peroxisomes
(glyoxysomes in plants)
-oxidative reactions catalyzed by amino acid oxidases and catalase
- glyoxylate cycle reactions in plants
Most ATP is contained where?
cytosol
Which mammalian organ is responsible for the synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors?
liver
Gluconeogenesis
synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors
Adipose tissue is responsible for storage of what?
Triacylglycerols
Isozyme
enzymes that catalyze the same rxn but:

1. encoded by different genes

2. have different kinetic or regulatory properties
What are the two isozymes of lactate dehydrogenase and where are they found?
M and H type

M- muscle (skeletal) and liver- predominates in tissues subject to anaerobic conditions
H-heart- predominates in tissues subject to aerobic conditions
What does lactate dehydrogenase do?
interconverts lactate and pyruvate

M isomer better at P→L (Ampel)

H isomer better at L→P
A heart attack can be diagnosed by finding what in the blood?
H-type LDH