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19 Cards in this Set

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Hexokinase
First Regulated Step of Glycolisis
Puts Pi on Glucose position 6
Glucose now stays in cell
Inhibited- by product G-6-P
In liver called Glucokinase and isnt inhibited by G-6-P
Phosphoglucose Isomerase
changes glucose into Fructose-6-phosphate (6C-5C)
PFK-1

Phosphofructokinase
2nd regulated step and MOST REGULATED STEP
uses Pi of ATP and makes

Fructose-1,6, Bisphosphate
Regulation of PFK-1
1.)Inhibition
2.) Stimulation
Inhibition- ATP, pH (from lactate), Citrate (TCA Product)
Stimulation- AMP, F2,6BP (made by PFK2)
PFK-2

Phosphofructokinase 2
Off Glycolytic Pathway-makes
FRUCTO 2,6 BISPHOSPHATE
THIS UPREGULATES PFK-1A
isomer of F 1,6 Bpi
*PFK-2 and FBPase are both part of one enzyme with 2 subunts and 2 activities*
Stimulates PFK-1
Fructose Bisphosphatase 2
FBPase 2
Inhibits action of PFK2 by turning its product F2,6 BP back into F-1,6 Phosphate
*PFK-2 and FBPase are both part of one enzyme with 2 subunts and 2 activities*
Aldose
John Bleushi
breaks F-1,6 BP into 2 things
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP)
Dihydroxy Acetone Phosphate (DHAP)
Triosphospate Isomerase
turns (DHAP) into(GAP)
now have 2 3c molcules
Next unregulated steps in GLycolysis and Ennergy use/products
1.)Dehydrogenase
2.)Kinase
3.)Mutase
4.)Enolase
1.)Pi, NAD+ into 2 NADPH
2.)ADP into 2 ATP
3.)H20 out
4.)
Pyruvate Kinase
third regulated step of glycolysis
turns phosphoenolpyruvate into puruvate
ADP to 2 ATP
NET GAIN GLYCOLYSIS- 2 ATP
Inhibitied-ATP, Alanine
ALOSETRICALLY INHIBITED-Pi
Stimulated- f 1,6 BP
Where can Pyruvate go?
1.)Acetylaldehyde to ethanol
2.)Lactate-NADH+ to NAD+ & H- this NAD is necessary for glycolysis to continue
3.)Acetyl- Co A
Gluconeogenesis
Force into sugar
Stars in matrixx but ends in cytoplasm
Pyruvate Carboxylase
Co-enzyme=biotin
Adds a C02
becomes Oxaloacetate (4C)
Inhibited-ADP
Stimulated-Acetyl CoA
Oxaloacetate to Malate
OAA cant leave matrix
grabs e- from NADH to NAD+ and becomes Malate
Malate leaves matrix and drops e- back on NAD+ to NADH and is now OAA in cytosol
Phosphoenol carboxykinase

PEPCK
turns OAA into Phospohoenol puryvate

then steps backward to fructo 1,6 BP are exact oposite of glycolysis
Fructo 1-6 Bisphosphatase
removes a Pi
turns F1,6 BP into F,6 P
Corallary step in Glycolysis is PFK 1 making F,6 P into
F1,6 BP
Inhibited-Fructose 2,6 BP
Stimulate-Citrate,
Glucose 6 Phosphatase
IN liver only!
turns Glucose 6 Phosphate into Glucose
(an isomerase again turns F 1,6 BP into G-6-Phosphate)
Hormonal regulation of Glycolysis-liver muscle
1.)Inhibited by?
1.) Glucagon inhibits pyruvate kinase and PFK1- 2 key regulatory steps
Mechanism of Inhibition
1-bind receptor
2-G protein cascade-CAMP
3-CAMP activate PKA
4-PKA Pi on PKFA2 inhibits
and FBPase 2 active
5-a Phosphotase removes Pi so PFK-2 active and FBPase 2 inacive