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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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GLUT2 is used for glucose metabolism in the ...
Liver
GLUT2 is ...
insulin dependent, low affinity, high capacity glucose transporter
The Pentose Phospates pathway of glycolysis is for the production of ...
NADPH
In the Liver, Glucose can be used in drug and bilirubin detoxification via ...
Glucuronic acid pathway and the production of glucuronides
What is a Phosphoryl Transfer?
ex)
ROH + ATP ->R-OPO3- + ADP + H+
What is a Aldol Cleavage?
ex)
RCOHCOHCOR --->
COHCOR + COR
(aldehyde)
What is a Phosphorl Shift?
ex)
RCHOHCH2O-PO3H2 -->
CH2OHCHRO-PO3H2
What is a dehydration reaction?
ex)
CH2OHCHRR -> CH2=CRR + H2O
what FOUR types of reactions occur in the Glycolytic Pathway?
(1) Phosphoryl Transfer
(2) Phosphoryl Cleavage
(3) Aldol Cleavage
(4) Dehydration
Hexokinase is reversible or irreversible?
IRREVERSIBLE
Fructose-6-Phospate
-?->
Fructose-1,6- Bisphosphate
6-Phosphofructose-1-Kinase

IRREVERSIBLE
Glucose-6-Phosphate
--?-->
Fructose-6-Phosphate
Phosphoglucose Isomerase

REVERSIBLE
Most important regulatory enzyme in the Glycolytic Pathway?
Phosphofructose-1-Kinase
IRREVERSIBLE
The THREE stages of the glycolytic pathway?
(1) Priming Stage
(2) Splitting Stage
(3) Oxidoreduction- Phosphorylation Stage
What is the priming stage of glycolysis?
The input of 2ATP to convert glucose to Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate
GLUCOSE--hexokinase--> Glucose-6-P--Phosphoglucose Isomerase-->Fructose-6-P--Phosphofructose-1-Kinase--->FRUCTOSE-1,6-BISPHOSPATE
What is the commitment step of the glycolytic pathway?
Fructose-6-Phoshphate

--via irreversible Phosphofructose Kinase-->

Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate
What is the Splitting Stage of the glycolytic pathway?
Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase(reversible) catalyzes the cleavage of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Then Triose Phosphate Isomerase, another reversible reaction, converts the dihydroxyacetone phosphate into Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate (GAP). BOTH molecules of GAP continue to the next stage of the glycolytic pathway.
Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate
--?-->
Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate (GAP)
Triose Phosphate Isomerase

REVERSIBLE
Fructosse-1,6-Bisphosphate is the end product of what stage of the glycolytic pathway?
The PRIMING stage
Fructose-1,6,Bisphosphate
---?--->
Dihydroxyacetone-P + GAP
Fructose-1,6-Bisphospate Aldolase

REVERSIBLE
Phosphofructo-1-Kinase has a highly specialized and rare case of regulation...
The activator and inhibitor sites OVERLAP
What are the Oxidoreduction Reactions of the glycolytic pathway?
(a)2 Glyceraldehyde-6-Phosphate molecules are converted to (2) 1,3 Bisphosphoglycerate via Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase
(b) (2) 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate is converted to 3-Phosphoglycerate via a reversible Phosphoglycerate kinase
(c) (2) 3-Phosphoglycerate is converted to (2) 2-Phosphoglycerate via Phosphoglycerate mutase (also reversible)
(d) (2) 2 Phosphoglycerate is converted to Phosphoenol pyruvate via the reversible enzyme Enolase
(e) Phosphoenol pyruvate is converted to pyruvate via a reversible enzyme Pyruvate Kinase.
(f) Finally, Pyruvate is converted to Lactate through Lactate Dehydrogenase.
The priming stage of the glycolytic pathway uses ____ ATP?
2 ATP
The Splitting stage uses ____ ATP?
0 ATP
Once Glucose becomes _____ it is commited to the glycolytic pathway?
Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate
What step of the oxidoreduction reactions stage uses ATP?
NONE
The oxidoreduction reaction stage of the glycolytic pathways uses ___ ATP and makes ____ ATP?
Uses 2 ATP and make 4 ATP!
What steps of the oxidoreduction reaction stage of the glycolytic pathway make ATP?
1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate is dephosphorylated to 3-Phosphoglycerate via Phosphoglycerate Kinase (happens twice)

Also the conversion of Phosphoenol Pyruvate to Pyruvate via Pyruvate Kinase
(2 times)