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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
THe ability of an enzyme or receptor to discriminate among competing substrates or ligands
The proportionality constant that relates the velocity of a chemical reaction to the concentration(s) of the reactants
Rate Constant
A constant, characterstic for each chemical reaction; relates the specific concentrations of all reactants and products at equilibrium at a given temperature and pressure
Equilibrium constant {K[eq]}
Any chemical species in a rxn pathway that has a finite chemical lifetime
Rxn intermediate
The energy derived from noncovalent interactions between enzyme and substrate or receptor and ligand
binding energy {delta G [B]}
1. Generally the step in an enzymatic rxn with the greatest activation energy or the transition state of the highest free energy

2. The slowest step in a metabolic pathway
rate limiting step
The specific compound acted upon by an enzyme
The normal, stable form of an atom or molecule; as distinct from the excited state
Ground State
The free-energy change for a reaction occuring under a set of standard conditions: Temp 298 k; pressure 1 atm or 101.3 kPa; and all solutes at 1 M concentration
Standard free- energy change
The amount of energy (in J) required to convert all the molecules in 1 mole of a reacting substance from the ground state to the transition state
Activation energy
An activated form of a molecule in which the molecule has undergone a partial chemical rxn; the highest point on the reaction coordinate
Transition state
A Metal ion or an organic compound (other than an A.A) that is convalently bound to a protein and is essential to it's activity
Prosthetic group
A catalytically active enzyme including all necessary subunits, prothetic groups, and cofactors
The protein portion of an enzyme, exclusive of any organic or inorganic cofactors or prosthetic groups that might be required for catalytic activity
The protein portion of a protein, exclusive of any organic or inorganic cofactors or prosthetic groups that might be required for activity
The region of an enzyme surface that binds the substrate molecule and catalytically transforms it; also know as the catalytic site
Active site
An organic cofactor required for the action of certain enzymes; often contains a vitamin as a component
An inorganic ion or a coenzyme required for enzyme activity
A biomolecule, either protein or RNA, that catalyzes a specific chemical rxn. It does not affect the equilibrium of the catalyzed reaction; it enhances the rate of a rxn by providing a reaction path with a lower activation energy
Enzymes that transfer the terminal phosphoryl group of ATP or another nucleoside triphosphate to a Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asp, or His side chain in a target protein. Thereby regulating the activity or other properties of that protein
Protein Kinases
An enzyme having a regulatory function through its capacity to undergo a change in catalytic activity by allosteric mechanisms or by covalent modification
regulatory enzymes
A regulatory enzyme with catalytic activity modulated by the non-covalent binding of a specific metabolite at a site other than the active site
allosteric enzymes
Inhibition of an allostericenzymes at the beginning of a metabolic sequence by the end product of the sequence; AKA end product inhibition
Feedback inhibition
An inactive precursor of an enzyme; Ex. pepsinogen, the precursor of pepsin