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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Active Transport
The energy requiring movement of molecules across a membrane agains a concentration gradient
Addition Reaction
a chemical reaction in which two molecules react to form a third molecule
Amino Acid
type of molecule found within a cell used to build protein polymers
Anabolic Pathway
a series of biochemic reactions in which large complex molecules are syntehesized from smaller precursors
Anticodon
a swequence of 3 ribonucleotides on a tRNA molecule that is complementart to a codon on the mRNA molecule; codon-anticodon binding resuls in the delivery of the correct amino acid to the site or protein synthesis
Archaea
one of three domains of living organisms; prokaryotic organisms that have the apearance of bacteria and many molecular properties that are similar to the eukaryotes
Autotrophs
an organism that transforms light enery (from the sun) or various chemicals into chemical bond energy
Bacteria
one of the three domains of life; single-celled prokaryotes with diverse capacities to exploit their environments
Biomolecule
the molecules tht make up living organisms
Bioremediation
the use of biological processes to decontaminate toxic waste sites
Catabolic pathway
a series of biochemical reactions in which large complex molecules are degraded into smaller, simpler products
Chemoautotroph
an autotroph who tranforms evergy from chemicals into chemical bond energy
Chemoheterotroph
an organism that uses preformed food molecules as its sole source of energy
Codon
a sequence of three nucelotides in mRNA that directs the incorporation of an amino acid during protein sythesis or acts as a start or stop signal
Electophile
an electron deficients species such as a hydrogen ion (H+)
elimination reaction
a reaction in which a double bond is formed when atoms in a molecule are removed
energy
the capacity to do work
enzyme
a biomolecule that catalyzes a chemical reaction
eukarya
one of the three domains of life; contains single celled and multicellular eukaryotic organisms
eukaryotic cell
a living cell that possesses a true nucleus
extremophile
an organism that lives under extreme conditions of temperature, pH, pressure or ionic concentration that would easily kill most organisms
extremozyme
an enzyme that functions under extreme conditions of temperature, prssure, pH, or ionic concentration
fatty acid
a long chain monocarboxylic acid that contains an even number of carbon atoms
functional group
a group of atoms that undergo characteristic reactions when attached to a carbon atom in an organic molecule or a biomolecule
gene
a DNA sequence that codes for a polypeptide, rRNA, or tRNA
gene expression
the mechanisms by which living orgainsms regulate the flow of genetic information
heterotroph
an organism that attains energy by degrading preformed food molecules obtained by conumin other organisms
homeostasis
the capacit of living organisms to regulate metabolic processes despite variability in their internal and external environments
hydration
a type of addition reaction in which water is added to a carbon-carbon double bond
hydrocarbon
a olecule that contains only carbon and hydrogen
hydrolysis
a chemic reaction that invovles the reaction of a molecule with water; the process by which moleules are broken into their constituents by adding water
hydrophilic
molecules that psosess positive or negative charges or contain relatively large numbers of electronegative oxygen or nitrogen atoms; dissolve easily in water
hydrophobic
molecules that possess few if any electonegative atoms; do not dissolve in water
isomerization
the reversible intercovnersion of isomers
leaving group
the group displaced during a nucleophilic substitution reaction
lipid
any of a group of biomolcules that are soluble in nonpolar solvens and nsoluble in water
macromolcule
a biopolymer formed from the linkage of certain biomolcules via covalent bonds; examples include nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides
metabolism
the total of all chemical reactions in an organism
monosaccharide
a polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone with the formula (CH20), where n is at least 3
mutation
any change in the nucleotide sequence of a gene
neurotransmitter
a molecule released at a nerve terminal that binds to an influences the functionof other nerve cels or muscle cells
nucleic acid
a macromolecule composed of nucleotides; DNA and RNA are nucleic acids
nucleophile
an electron-rich atom or molecule
nucleophilc substitution
a reaction in which a nucleophile substitues for an atom or molecular group
nucleotide
a biomolecule coposed oa pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribos) and a nitrogenous base
organelle
a membrane-enclosed structure within a eukaryotic cell
oxidation-reduction (redox)
a reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another
oxidize
the removal of electrons
oxidizing agent
a substance that oxidizes (removes electrons from) another substance; the oxidizing agent is itself reduced in the process
peptide
an amino acid polymer composed of fewer than 50 amino acid reisues
peptide bond
an amide linkage in an amino acid polymer
photoautotroph
an organism that possesses a mechanism for transforming solar energy into other forms of energy
photoheterotroph
an organism that uses both light and organic biomolecules as energy sources
polypeptide
an amino acid polymer with more that 50 amino acid residues
polysaccharide
a linear or branched polymer of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds
prokaryotic cell
a living cell that lacks a nucleus
protein
a macromolecule coposed of one or more polypeptides
purine
a nitrogenous base with a 2 ring structure; a component of nucelotides
pyrimidine
a nitrogensous base with a single ring stucutes; a component of nucelotides
reduce
the transfer of electrons
reducing agent
a substance that reducs the oxidation number of another reactant; the reducing agent is itself oxidized in the process
reductionism
a complex phenomenon such as life can be eventually understood by analyzing its simplest components
saturated
a molecule that contains no carbon-carbon doulbe or triple bonds
sugar
the basic unit of carboydrates; a class of biomolecule containing hydrozyl groups and an aldehyde group or a ketone group
transcrption
the process in which single-stranded RNA with a abase sequence comlementarty to the temple strand of DNA is synthesized
transduction
the transfer of genes between bacteria by bacteriophages
translation
protein synthesis; the process by which the genetic message carried by mRNA directs the synthesis of polypeptides with the aid of ribosomes and other cell constitituents
translocation
movement of the ribosome along the mRNA during translation
unsaturated
a molecule that contains one or more carbon-carbon double or triple bonds
5 insights about life
1) life is complex and dynamic
2. life is organized and self-sustaining
3. life is cellular
4. life is inforation based
5. life adapts and evolves