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23 Cards in this Set

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nucleic acid

its function
polymeric RNA & DNA present in every cell

Fxn: to store and express hereditary information
genetics
molecular biology
science of nucleic acids and how they encode information
DNA

function
composition
deoxyribonucleic acid

fxn: stores hereditary information
comp: long polymers of sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous bases
RNA

function
composition
ribonucleic acid: D-ribose linked together by phosphate functional groups

fxn: copies and translates DNA genetic information

comp: long polymers of sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous bases
gout

description
cause
A condition resulting from a diet excessive in nucleic acids.

Crystallization of uric acid in the joints. Uric acid results from the metabolic waste products of the nitrogenous bases of the nucleic acids.
phosphodiester bond
a phosphorous with an ester linkage on both sides
nitrogenous bases
2 purines: adenine and guanine are in DNA & RNA.

3 pyrimidines: cytosine, thymine (DNA), & uracil (RNA)
N-glycosidic bond
glycosidic bond from a sugar to a N atom of the base
Purines
Adenine and guanine. In DNA & RNA. Identical heterocyclic rings with different exocyclic groups (decorations).
Pyrimidines
Cytosine, thymine (DNA), & uracil (RNA). Also identical heterocyclic rings with different exocyclic groups (decorations).
nucleoside

Examples
The unit resulting from a base attached to a ribose or deoxyribose.

Ex: adenine + ribose = adenosine
adenine + deoxyribose = deoxyadenosine
nucleotide

fxns
Nucleoside (base + deoxy/ribose) + 1 or more phosphate group

- form precusors of RNA & DNA
- ATP
- cAMP messengers
- protein synthesis @ ribosome
adenosine-5'-triphosphate
3 phosphates attached at the 5' C atom position

ATP: major energy currency of cells
complementary base pairing

Examples
Arises from hydrogen bonding capability btwn bases on opposite strands of the double helix

Ex:
A - T
C - G

AGs CUT AT College Garden
histones
Proteins around which DNA wraps into little balls to form nucleosomes.
nucleosomes
Little balls formed of DNA wrapped around histones.
solenoid
Nucleosomes stacked around one another in a coil structure.
chromatin
The complex of DNA and proteins in the nucleus.
mRNA
Messenger RNA. Temporary copy of a segment of DNA that disintegrates after it's used to make proteins.
rRNA

Size
Ribosomal RNA. 4 of these make up the eukarytic ribosome.

Size: few hundred to few thousand bases in length
tRNA

Size
Transfer RNA. RNA molecules that participate in protein synthesis, function to carry the amino acids to the ribosome and insert them in their proper place during protein synthesis.

Size: Usually less than 100 bases in length.
hairpin or stem-loop structures
Regions of many RNA molecules that have sequences of bases that are complementary to sequences in other parts of the same molecule.
polynucleotide
RNA: polymer of D-ribose linked with phosphate functional groups. Or DNA: D-2-deoxyribose and phosphate functional groups.