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55 Cards in this Set

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carbohydrate
Chemical compounds that include sugars and molecules derived from sugars

1) burned for energy
2) stored for later use
3) used to make body parts
saccharides
Simple sugars

Simplest: glucose and fructose

Slightly less simple: sucrose, maltose, lactose.
D-glucose
basic, fundamental sugar unit of life, preferred by most living organisms

Mother of carbohydrates

The -OH group of carbon #5 is oriented to the right
monosaccharide
sugar made from just one sugar unit
anomer
the different structures that arise from the rotation of a bond in a molecule (of glucose)

differ only in the rotation of a single bond
a (alpha) anomer
When the -OH group in position 1 of a glucose is pointed downward
B (beta) anomer
When the -OH group in position 1 of a glucose is pointed upward
hexose
a sugar with six carbon atoms

ex. glucose
triose
a sugar with three carbon atoms
tetrose
a sugar with four carbon atoms
pentose
a sugar with five carbon atoms
aldose
sugar molecule with an aldehyde group in its structure

also: aldohexose
aldohexose
a six carbon sugar with an aldehyde group in its structure
asymmetric carbon
carbon with four different groups attached to it

switching any of the four will result in a non-superimposable mirror image at that position
L-sugar
The position of the -OH group on the next-to-last carbon of a sugar is oriented to the left.
D-sugar
The position of the -OH group on the next-to-last carbon of a sugar is oriented to the right.
epimers
Molecules in which the -H and -OH groups are switched at only one position
galactose
the C4 epimer of glucose

an important component of milk sugar
D-fructose
When its five-membered ring is opened it has a keto-functional group at Carbon #2, rather than an aldehyde at Carbon #1 (glucose)
aldopentose
Five carbon sugar with and aldehyde fxnl group on the Carbon #1

ex. D-ribose: in RNA
D-2-deoxyribose in DNA
glycosidic bond
a bond that involves the anomeric carbon atom of the saccharide unit
disaccharide
two glucose molecules joined together via a glycosidic bond

ex. maltose, sucrose
maltose
two glucose molecules linked in alpha(1,4) fashion

D-glucosyl-alpha(1,4)-D-glucose
lactose
galactose and glucose linked in beta(1,4) fashion

D-galactosyl-beta(1,4)-D-glucose
sucrose
table sugar, a common disaccharide of one glucose and one fructose with a glycosidic bond between the anomeric carbon of both sugars.

a-D-glycosyl-(1,2)-B-D-fructose
oligosaccharides
molecules made up of a few saccharide units
polysaccharides
large molecules made up of many saccharide units

"many sugars" or glycans
glycans
polysaccharides

large molecules made up of many saccharide units
monomer
glucose units
polymer

Uses of glucose polymers?
lots of glucose units (monomers) linked together in a small number of ways

energy storage or structural purposes
a(alpha)-amylose
the simplest of energy storage polymers, a component of starch

many thousands of glucose monomers joined in alpha(1,4) linkage - curl into balls
amylopectin
another component of starch, same structure as a-amylose but some of the glucose link to others using and a(1,6) linkage - leading to a branched structure

More glucose units fit together this way; may branch every 30 glucose units +/-
glycogen
like amylopectin, but more highly branched

may branch every 8-10 units
cellulose
glucose monomers analogous to a-amylose, except in the B(1,4) linkage

Average of 15,000 glucose monomers in a single molecule

Form long, extended chains i.e., cell walls - stiff fibers
D-glucosamine

(delete?)
The -OH group on glucose's Carbon #2 is substituted with an amino group (-NH2)
chitin
a cellulose decorated with an acetylated amino group at Carbon #2

exoskeleton
glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
Polysaccharides that contain amino groups or modified amino groups. Most are repeating disaccharides

Common in extracellular structures of organisms i.e, cartilage, vitreal humor of eye, synovial fluid.
hyaluronate
Major component of synovial fluid; disaccharides linked by B(1,4) glycosidic bonds

D-glucuronate-B(1,3)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
chondroitin-4-sulfate
Like hyaluronate, except different decorations.
glycosylated protein
essentially all secreted and cell-surface proteins with sugar residues attached at specific points; for cell-to-cell recognition and signaling
peptidoglycan
polysaccharide chains linked together by peptides (short segments of proteins)

ex.: bacterial cell walls
proteoglycans
huge, complex molecules containing protein and glycan

ex.: cartilage; highly negative, highly hydrated (squishy, resilient)
core protein
highly glycosylated proteins that are attached to a hyaluronate every so often along its length
kwashiorkor
condition arising from all carbs, no protein diet

s/sx: distended belly
sucrase
hydrolyzes sucrose into glucose and fructose
lactase
hydrolyzes lactose into glucose (absorbed) and galactose (epimerized into glucose).
lactose intolerance
Results from lack of lactase; undigested lactose is eaten by bacteria who create gases and trouble in INTS
starch granules
subcellular organelles that store amylose and amylopectin
dextrins
Short, branched structures resulting from breakdown of branching points of amylopectin
isomaltase
hydrolyzes a(1,6) glycosidic bonds
fiber
non-digestible polysaccharides

feed gut bacteria who then excrete short chain fatty acids which we use
starch
70 - 90% of the solid material in corn, potato, and wheat
N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
Glucosamine - -OH on C#2 in glucose - has an acetyl group on the amino group.
ketose
a 5 C membered sugar with at keto group at C #2
ketohexose
hexose (5 C membered sugar) with a keto group at C#2