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18 Cards in this Set

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asymmetric carbon atom
When all four substituents on a C are different.
carbonyl
A C with a double-bonded oxygen.
cis-trans isomerism
When double bonds occur in hydrocarbons rotation does not occur. If C on either side of the double bond have different substituents on them then:
Cis - they are on the same face of the molecule OR
Trans - they are on opposite faces of the molecule.
condensation reaction
Also dehydration.

Removing a water molecule to build large molecules from smaller components.
cyclic hydrocarbons
Chains of carbon in a cyclic form. 5 and 6-membered are most common.
Heterocyclic rings also include O and N.
dehydration
Also condensation reaction.

Removing a water molecule to build large molecules from smaller components.
enantiomers
A consequence of asymmetric C: Mirror-image isomers are possible.

Ex.: L-amino acids derived from proteins; D-amino acids are not biologically useful.

Biological systems will ignore these.
ester
Linkage between a carboxyl and a hydroxyl group.
ether
When a hydroxyl group is a point of linkage with another carbon chain.

R-C-O-C-R
functional groups
Confer particular chemical or physical properties on a molecule.

Often the linkage point between smaller molecules to make larger molecules.
high-energy compound
A compound that stores a lot of energy in its chemical bonds.

Ex.: ATP stores lots of energy between the phosphate groups.
hydrocarbon
Scaffolds of H and C, when decorated with functional groups form most biological molecules.
hydrolysis
Breaking with water.

Adding a water molecule to split the chemical bond of a molecule.
isomers
Two different chemicals that may have same formula, but are arranged differently
organic
Generally, molecules made up of C, H, O and N

Specifically include P and S too.
racemic mixture
A mixture of equal amounts of D- and L- forms of a molecule.

Ex.: Commercially available amino acids
sulfonyl
Similar to phosphate, but not as prevalent in biological systems.
stereoisomerism
Occurs when a C is bonded to four different substituents.