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14 Cards in this Set

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glycolysis
glucose breakdown. Involves @ 10 enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the cytoplasm of nearly all cells.
gluconeogenesis
production of glucose from other sources
energy investment phase
The first part of the glucolysis pathway that requires the input of ATP.
-kinase
Nearly all enzymes that use ATP are something-kinase.
biphosphate
Two phosphates at different locations on a molecule.
diphosphate
Two phosphates are attached to one another from a single location on a molecule.
energy harvest phase
The step in glycolysis that yields 4 ATP and some NADH.
- dehydrogenase
Enzymes that use NAD+ and result in the loss of 2 H from the substrate.
pyruvate
The final product of the glycolysis pathway is 2 molecules of this.
transition reaction
A one-step conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA for entry into Krebs cycle.
homolactic fermentation
Pyruvate is reduced to lactic acid with the concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD+.
alcoholic fermentation
Microorganisms make ethanol from pyruvate.
pentose phosphate shunt
A bypass route that results in the production of "reducing energy" for the synthesis of 5 C sugars.
regulatory cascade
layers of regulation in the cell that amplify a small signal to generate a large response.