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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
which resembles substrate: competitive or noncompetitive inhibitors?
what type of inhibitor binds at the active site and is overcome by increasing substrate?
what effect do competitive inhibitors have on Vmax?
what effect do noncompetitive inhibitors have on Vmax?
decrease it
what effect do competitive inhibitors have on Km?
increase it
what effect do noncompetitors have on Km?
the lower the Km, the higher the _____?
when does Km = [S]?
at 1/2Vmax
in the cell cycle, which phase is usually the shortest?
most cells are at what point in the cell cycle?
G0 - quiescent G1 phase
rapidly dividing cells have a shorter ____?
G1 (growth)
this is the site of synthesis of secretory proteins and N-linked oligosaccharide addition to many proteins
mucus-secreting goblet cells of SI and Ab-secreting plasma cells are rich in what cellular organelle?
nissl substance is not found where?
axon or axon hillock
what do nissl bodies do?
synthesize enzymes (e.g. ChAT) adn peptide neurotransmitters
what is SER for?
site of steroid synthesis and detoxification of drugs and poisons
lipid hepatocytes and steriod-producing cells of the adrenal cortex are rich in what?
where is mannose-6-phosphate added, and what does it do?
golgi - added to specific lysosomal proteins, which targets them to the lysosome
what is I cell disease?
failure of addition of man-6-P to lysosome proteins, causing them to be secreted outside the cell instead of targeted to the lysosome; coarse facial features and restricted joint movement
this is the distribution center of proteins and lipids from the ER to the plasma membrane, lysosomes, and secretory vesicles
the golgi modifies N-oligosaccharides on what amino acid?
golgi adds O-oligosaccharides to residues of what?
serine and threonine
what organelle assembles proteoglycans from proteoglycan core proteins?
this organelle performs sulfation of sugars in proteoglycans and of selected tyrosine on proteins
what is the diameter of a microtubule?
24 nm
each dimer in microtubules has how many GTP bound to it?
mebendazole/thiabendazole, taxol, griseofulvin, vincristine/vinblastine, and colchicine all act on what structure?
this syndrome is characterized by decreased phagocytosis as a result of a microtubule polymerization defect
chediak-higashi syndrome
microtubules are involved in what type of axoplasmic transport?
how many polymerized tubulin dimers are there per circumference in microtubules?
this structure consists of a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules
dynein is reponsible for what direction of movement?
kynesin is responsible for what direction of movement?
this is an ATPase that links peripheral 9 doublets and causees bending of cilium by differential sliding of doublets
a high cholesterol or long saturated fatty acid content does what to melting temperature?
increases it
this is the only side of the plasma membrane that contains glycosylated lipids or proteins
this is a major component of RBC membranes, myelin, bile, surfactant, and is also used in the esterification of cholesterol
H1, alpha1, V1, M1, & M3 are linked to which class of G protein?
Gq (HAVe 1 M&M)
Gq initiates what cascade?
phospholipase C - PIP2 - IP3 - increased intracellular calcium
also PIP2 can yield DAG - PKC
beta1, beta2, D1, H2, V2 are linked to which class of G protein?
M2, alpha2, and D2 are linked to what class of G protein?
Gi (MAD 2s)
Gs/Gi stimulate/inhibit what cascade?
adenylyl cyclase - cAMP - PKA
what is the most abundant protein in the body?
90% of collagen is what type?
type I
this type of collagen is found in bone, tendon, skin, dentin, fascia, cornea, late wound repair
type I
this type of collagen is found in cartilage, vitreous body, nucleus polposus
type II
this type of cartilage is found in skin, blood vessels, uterus, fetal tissue, granulaltion tissue
type III
this type of cartilage is found in basement membrane or basal lamina
type IV
this type of cartilage is found in the epiphyseal plate
type X
where are collagen alpha chains (preprocollagen) translated?
on RER
preprocollagen has the structure Gly-X-Y - what are X and Y?
proline, hydroxyproline, or hydroxylysine
hydroxylation of specific proline and lysine residues in the synthesis of collagen occurs where and requires what?
ER; vitamin C
in collagen synthesis, where does glycosylation of pro-alpha-chain lysine residues and formation of procollagen occur?
what is procollagen?
triple helix of 3 collagen alpha chains
what is formed when procollagen peptidases cleave terminal regions of procollagen? where does this occur?
tropocollagen; occurs outside fibroblasts
collagen fibrils are composed of what?
many staggered tropocollagen molecules that are reinforced by covalent lysine-hydroxylysine cross linkages
the step between pro-alpha-chains and triple helix formation/procollagen does not occur in what disease?
osteogenesis imperfecta
the step between peptide cleavage and collagen fibrils with crosslinks doesn't occur in what syndrome?
vimentin stains what?
connective tissue
what does desmin stain?
what does cytokeratin stain?
epithelial cells
what do glial fibrillary acid proteins (GFAP) stain?
what do neurofliaments stain?