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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is normal blood glucose concentration?
Which tissues are GLUT1 and GLUT3 found on? What are their Kms?
Brain, RBCs; 1-2mM
Which tissues is GLUT2 found on?
What is GLUT2's Km?
liver; 12mM
Which tissues is GLUT4 found on?
What is its Km?
muscle, adipose tissue; 5mM
Which GLUT transporter is dependent on a hormone? Name the hormone.
GLUT 4; insulin
What is the function of glycolysis?
To convert glucose to pyruvate to use for producing ATP.
In anaerobic glycolysis, what is pyruvate converted to?
In aerobic glycolysis, what is pyruvate converted to?
Acetyl CoA
What are the three rate limiting enzymes of glycolysis?
hexokinase, PFK1, pyruvate kinase
Instead of hexokinase, what enzyme is in the liver?
What inhibits hexokinase?
What inhibits PFK1?
ATP, citrate, H+
What stimulates PFK1?
what inhibits pyruvate kinase?
ATP, alanine, glucagon
What stimulates pyruvate kinase?
Apart from regulatory enzymes, what else regulates glycolysis?
substrate availability (diet) = glucose, NAD+; product removal (NADH and H+ recycling to NAD+)
Which enzyme in involved in converting pyruvate to lactate?
lactate dehydrogenase
which enzyme is involved in converting Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA?
pyruvate dehydrogenase
What two enzymes regulate the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase?
pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase.
Is pyruvate dehydrogenase active is the dephosphorylated or phosphorylated form?
What regulates the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase?
Ratios of ATP/ADP, Acetyl CoA/CoA and NADH+H+/NAD+
what regulates the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase?
Ca2+ (musc. contraction), insulin
What are the names of the shuttles?
glycerophosphate shuttle (FADH2 linked), malate/aspartate shuttle (NADH linked).
What are the functions of the shuttles?
transfer NADH or FADH2 across the mitochondrial membranes.
what is the function of gluconeogenesis?
To synthesise glucose from non-carbohydrate precusors
What are precursors of gluconeogenesis?
lactate, glycerol and gluconeogenic amino acids. (propionate in ruminants)
What are the 4 enzymes in the obligatory quartet of gluconeogenesis?
pyruvate carboxlase, PEP carboxy kinase, fructose-1,6-bisPhosphatase, glucose-6-Phosphatase
what does pyruvate carboxylase do?
convert pyruvate to OAA.
what does PEP carboxy kinase do?
converts OAA to PEP
what does fructose-1,6-bisPhosphatase do?
converts fructose-1,6-bisP to fructose-6P
what does glucose-6Phosphatase do?
converts glucose6P to glucose.
what is the rate limiting step of gluconeogenesis?
Which hormone stimulates the synthesis of PEP carboxy kinase?
Which hormone stimulates the synthesis of glycolytic enzymes?
What does fructose-2,6-bisP do to glycolysis and gluconeogenesis?
stimulates glycolysis, inhibits gluconeogenesis.
What processes maintain glucose homeostasis when just fed? And which hormone drives these?
glycogenesis (excess glucose as glycogen), storing excess carbon as fat). Driven by insulin.
What processes maintain glucose homeostasis when starving? Which hormone drives these?
short term - glycogenolysis =liver mobilises glycogen stores.
mid-term - spare glucose, muscle use fat, gluconeogenesis. Driven by glucagon.
What processes maintain glucose homeostasis when under stress or during exercise? Which hormone drives these?
maximise glucose availability
Driven by glucagon.
What is the function of glycogenesis?
To store excess glucose until needed.
Which enzymes are involved in glycogenesis?
phosphoglucomutase, glycogen synthase.
What are the glycogen stores in liver and muscle used for?
liver - glucose homeostasis (short term)
muscle - ATP for contraction
Which hormone activates glycogen synthase?
which enzymes are involved in glycogenolysis?
glycogen phosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase
What inhibits glycogenolysis?
What stimulates glycogenolysis?
insulin inhibits, glucagon and adrenalin stimulate, as does muscle contraction.
What inhibits glycogenesis?
what stimulates glycogenesis?
Adrenalin and glucagon inhibit glycogenolysis. Insulin stimulates glycogenesis.
What is the function of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway?
to produce NADPH (reducing power) for fatty acid synthesis and steroid hormone production, and to provide ribose-5-P for nucleotide synthesis.
What does the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway generate?
What does the non-oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway generate?