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15 Cards in this Set

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Biosynthesis of ALANINE:
From PYRUVATE by ALANINE TRASAMINASE.
Biosynthesis of Aspartate:
From OXALOACETATE by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE
Biosynthesis of GLUTAMATE:
SEVERAL WAYS. CARBONS FROM ALPHA KETOGLUTERATE.

(Aminotransfer, glutemate dehydrogenase in reverse)
Biosynthesis of GLUTEMINE:
Made from Glutamate (AKG + NH3 to give GLUTAMINE. glutamine is the primary nitrogen donor.
Biosynthesis of Asparagine:
CARBONS FROM OXALOACETATE.
NITROGEN DONOR IS GLUTAMINE.

GLN + ASP ---> GLU + ASN
Biosynthesis of PROLINE:
CARBONS FROM ALPHA KETOGLUTERATE.

GLU ---> Glutamate semialdehyde
Biosynthesis of Serine:
CARBONS FROM 3 PHOSPHOGLYCERATE (some from GLY)
Biosynthesis of GLYCINE:
Major:
CARBONS FROM Serine (3phosphoglycerate)

minor:
NH3 + CO2 + THF ---> GLY
GLU and choline
Biosynthesis of Tyrosine:
CARBONS FROM PHENYLALANINE (Cofactor- THbiopterin)
What disorder is associated with high levels of phenylalanine?
"classical" Phenyketonuria and hyperphenylalanemia.

Liver Phenylalanine hydroxylase system is absent or non-functioning.

Causes cognitive impairments.
What is "nonclassical" phenylketonuria?
a result of Tetrahydrobiopterin not being able to be regenerated. treatment with THB.
What is hyperphenylalaninemia?
Where tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine cannot be broken down. severely affects cognition. treatment with THB will not work.
Biosynthesis of CYSTEINE:
ALL carbons from SERINE (3PG).

make SAM in the process and B12 dependent SAM to Methionine. Also make Homocysteine in the process.
Biosynthesis of CYSTEINE:
ALL carbons from SERINE (3PG).

make SAM in the process and B12 dependent SAM to Methionine. Also make Homocysteine in the process.
Biosynthesis of ARGANINE:
CARBONS FROM ORNITHINE

(requires CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE)