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18 Cards in this Set

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List the 4 types of alcoholic beverages that all have 1/2 oz of ethanol.
1. 5 oz. wine (100kcal)

2. 10 oz. wine cooler (135kcal)

3. 12 oz. beer (150kcal, light 80-130kcal)

4. 1 1/2 oz distilled liquor (100-110kcal)
What is faster on an empty stomach?
The absorption of alcohol thru the stomach walls.
What is alcohol dehydrogenase?
An enzyme involved in alcohol metabolism. It breaks down some alcohol in the stomach. Men generally have more than women and this leads to a higher tolerance.
What causes a higher tolerance for alcohol in men?
More alcohol dehydrogenase plus higher avg wt.
From the digestive tract, where is alcohol transported to?
To the liver for metabolism.
Where is alcohol dehydrogenase found?
In the liver.
How much alcohol can the liver metabolize in an hour?
~1/2 oz per hour.
What happens if the input of alcohol into the liver is greater than ~1/2 oz per hour?
The excess is transported to other cells. (Most importantly to the cells of the brain)
What might happen to alcohol dehydrogenase during a fast?
It may be broken down (to provide energy). This decreases the liver's ability to metabolize alcohol.
If you are consuming alcohol in excess of the liver's ability to metabolize it how many drinks are you drinking per hour?
More than 1. (Because each drink has 1/2 oz of ethanol)
What are 3 consequences of consuming alcohol in excess of the liver's ability to metabolize it?
1. Decrease in pH (increase in H+)

2. NADH inhibits TCA cycle

3. Acetyl-CoA accumulates, and begins to be transformed into fatty acids (fatty liver, fibrosis, cirrhosis) and ketone bodies (ketosis)
What consequence of consuming alcohol in the excess of the liver's ability to metabolize it results in you gaining wt?
The accumulation of Acetyl-CoA
Where is some alcohol transported to?
The brain.
What happens to the weight of moderately heavy drinkers?
Moderately heavy drinkers (who have to metabolize the moderately high amount of alcohol they consume) have greater energy (calorie) intake, and tend to gain weight (esp. "central obesity").
What happens to the nutrition of very heavy drinkers?
They generally eat poorly, and often suffer from malnutrition (don't consume enough nutrients and lose weight).
What 6 vitamin deficiencies may be seen during alcohol abuse?
1. Folate deficiency

2. Thiamine deficiency

3. Vitamin B6 deficiency

4. Vitamin B12 deficiency

5. Vitamin D deficiency

6. Vitamin A deficiency
What are the characteristics of folate deficiency?
1. not retained by kidney

2. over-excreted by kidney

3. Poorly retained and absorbed by the intestine
What are the characteristics of thiamin deficiency?
This is a B-vit deficiency. There is reduced intake and poor absorption. This can lead to Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (often seen in alcoholics, paralysis of eye muscles, poor muscle coord., impaired memory)