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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what happens to NADH in H+ poor environments?
NADH reoxidised to NAD at fastest possible rate - fuel oxidation is escalated
uncouplers affect only certain cells, what is one exception to this rule?
dinitrophenol
what does brown adipose tisue do? where is it located? what happens to it over time?
keeps body warm, has a very good blood supply, mainly located above kidneys, more abundant in babies and hibernating animals, lose it as get older
besides making ATP, what else is the proton gradient used for?
transporting phosphate into mitochondria
in the electron transport chain, what does NADH donate its electrons to?
complex 1
what are prosthetic groups? what are some examples?
things that carry hydrogens or electrons. eg metal ions Fe(2+ 3+), Cu
which complexes in the electron transport chain contain prosthetic groups?
complexes 1 and 3
what happens to the electrons from NADH after they're delivered to complex 1?
flow through prosthetic groups and protons are moved out of the matrix into the cytoplasm, electrons picked up by ubiquinone (UQ)
what is another name for ubiquinone?
coenzyme Q
what does ubiquinone pick up from complex 1?
electrons in the form of hydrogen to become UQH2
between which complexes does UQ ferry H-?
between complex 1 and 3. and between compex 2 and 3
how many H+ are pumped out of complex 1?
4
how many H+s are pumped out of each complex in the electron transport chain?
complex 1 = 4. complex 3 = 4. complex 4 = 2
where do the electrons go after complex 3?
are given (one by one) to cytochrome C (cyt C) and passed to complex 4
what does complex 4 do with the electrons?
reacts them with oxygen to get water (4H- and O2 = 2H20) then pumps out 2 H+s
where are the proteins that make up the electron transport chain?
inner mitochondrial membrane
what are the complexes made of?
many different proteins
where does UQ live?
it's very hydrophobic and lives its entire life in the inner mitochondrial membrane
what is it that generates the proton gradient?
movement of H- down the electron transport chain
what is complex 2? can it pump H+s into the cytoplasm?
Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) - it doesn't have a face on the cytoplasm side so it can't pump any H+s out
how does complex 4 work?
complex 4 passes everything down until oxygen and protons take electrons and make water. in the process, 2 H+s are actively pumped out into cytoplasm
where does NAD mainly take H-s from?
alcohol groups, coverting them into carbonyl groups
what is the structure of NAD?
two nucleotides joined together
what is niacin?
the nicotinamide structure from NAD with H-
what is the structure of UQ?
very long hydrocarbon tail (hydrophobic - spends life in innermitochondrial membrane). has an aromatic ring with 2 carbonyl groups - can accept 2 hydrogens
where does UQH2 shuttle hydrogens?
to complex 3 (from complexes 1 and 2)
what is cytochrome C?
electron carrier - picks up electrons from complex 3 gives to complex 4
how does cytochrome C carry electrons?
has a metal ion at its core (Fe) to carry electrons. NB carries electrons, does NOT carry hydrogens (H-)
what is FAD particularly good at taking Hs from?
saturated hydrocarbon chain
where does FAD exist?
in complex 2. it's stuck there, can't get out and roam around like NAD
what is rotenone? how does it work?
an electron inhibitor at complex 1 of the electron transport chain (essentially creates a traffic jam - get build up of electrons before complex 1, no electrons after it) - stops whole chain, H+ pumping stops, everything downstream is oxidised
what is an electron inhibitor?
inhibits electrons passing through at a certain complex in the electron transport chain. creates a build up of e-s before it (upstream) everything upstream is reduced, everything downstream is oxidised.
what does cyanide do?
inhibits electrons at complex 4. whole chain stops, H+ pumping stops, everything upstream stays reduced
what happens if you provide an alternative acceptor to a complex being inhibited?
alternative acceptor accepts electrons from the complex before the blockage point and allows the electron transport to continue working provided there's a steady supply of alternative acceptor
what is an example of an alternative acceptor?
methylene blue