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13 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What two things to tyrosine kinases control?
They control cell metabolism and proliferation
What do intracellular receptor proteins control?
They control gene expression
What do TNF receptors activate?
They activate protein complexes that control cell death and survival.
What is cell death known as?
Apoptosis
What is Gleevec?
It is an enzyme inhibitor of the signalling protein Bcr-Abl kinase
What is Gleevec used to treat?
It is used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia.
What is the first distinguishing characteristic of receptor protein tyrosine kinases?
They transmit extracellular signals by ligand-activation of an intrinsic tyrosine kinase function encoded in the cytoplasmis tail of the receptor.
What is the second distinguishing characteristic of receptor protein tyrosine kinases?
Activation of the tyrosinekinase activity requires receptor dimerization which is often stimulated, or stabilized, by ligand binding
What is the third distinguishing characteristic of receptor protein tyrosine kinases?
Autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues within the receptor creates phosphotyrosine docking sites for signalling proteins that establish a relay signal between the receptor and a downstram phosphorylation cascade
What is a transcription factor?
It is a protein that binds DNA and regulates gene expression.
In cells that express the appropriate receptor proteins on the surface, what does insulin stimulate?
It stimulates uptake of glucose.
What primary biochemical mechanisms mediate short term and long term signalling responses?
The two are phosphorylation cascades and regulated gene expression, respectively.
Why are defects in signal transduction a common cause of metabolic diseases?
This is the caswe because cell signalling pathways are interdependent and disruption of one component can alter many pathways.