Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/19

Click to flip

19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
SOD
reactive O2* -> H2O2
Myeloperoxidase
H2O2 -> HOCl*
(makes bleach to kill bac)
Catalase
H2O2 -> H2O
(neutralizes excess peroxide)
NADPH oxidase
O2 -> O2*
(makes reactive O2 species, NADPH becomes NADP+ as a result of this enzymatic rxn)
aldose reductase
glucose -> sorbitol
(lens, retina, schwann, seminal vesicles)
**Hyperglycemia-> inc glucose in cell, add NADPH and aldose reductase makes sorbitol, which gets trapped inside, accumulates -> osmotic swelling -> cataracts, peripheral neuropathy in diabetes)
Acidic amino acids
Asp, Glu
(acidic AA are NEGATIVELY charged)
Basic amino acids
Arg, Lys
(basic AA are POSITIVELY charged; this is why histones bind negatively-charged DNA so well)
Which AAs have extra NH3 group?
Arg, Lys
Which AA is most basic? (=most positive)
Arg
Which AA is involved in vasodilation?
Arg
(Arg + NOS -> NO)
Which AA has no net charge?
His
(a basic amino acid)
Why is hyperammonemia bad?
alpha-ketoglutarate+NH3 <=>glutamate

excess NH3 makes more glutamate and less alpha-KG, which is needed for TCA, which the brain depends on
(NH3 steals energy from the brain)
DNA polymerase I
polymerization of nucleotides; also functions in processing and repair mechanisms
DNA polymerase III
major replicating enzyme in e.coli?
chiasma
cross-like structure formed when 2 homologous chromosomes exchange material
synapsis
proper name for the pairing of homolougous chromosomes with which meiosis begins
Tripolar mitoses
abnl mitoses resulting from abnl mitotic spindles
-in tumor cells, evidence of malignancy
AAUAAA
sequence that must be recognized in order for mRNA polyadenylation to occur
AAUAAA
sequence that must be recognized in order for mRNA polyadenylation to occur