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29 Cards in this Set

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What is semiconservative DNA replication?
Each new piece of DNA has one of the original parents strands, combined with one new daughter strand
What is conservative DNA replication?
The two parental strands remain together and the daughter strands are together.
How can you tell what kind of replication has occured?
Density gradient ultracentrifugation... basically put it in a centrifuge and indentify based on weight
What are replication forks?
the current site where DNA is undergoing replication
In prokaryotic DNA, replication is _____ with ____ point(s) of origin
bidirectional, 2
In Eukaryotic DNA, replication is _____ and has ____ point(s) of origin
bidirectional, multiple
DNA polymerase only works from the ___ end to ___

It can not replicate from ___ to ___
5' to 3'

3' to 5'
Describe how DNA polymerase I is related to Okazaki fragments
DNA polymerase can only replicate 5' to 3'. Therefore, when it has to replicate the strand going 5' to 3' it has to start near the replication fork and form backwards. It then has to jump back when more is available as the other strand is replicated. These segments are called Okazaki (lagging) strands
what three things does DNA polymerase I require to function?
A single stranded template, a primer with an open 3' OH and a complimentary deoxynucleoside triphosphate
What is helicase?
Begins the unwinding of DNA
What is DNA gyrase
A topoisomerase that relieves supercoiling
What is primase?
It synthesizes the RNA primer that is needed to start DNA replication
What is DNA polymerase III's function?
To elongate the chain by DNA synthesis
What is DNA polymerase I's function?
It removes the RNA primer and adds DNA to the strand
What is DNA ligase?
it closes the last phosphodiester gap
DNA synthesis in prok. is ___ directional
bi
The leading strand in DNA replication forms continuosly or non continuosly?
continuously
The lagging strand in DNA forms cont. or discont?
Discont (Okazaki fragments)
How are Okazaki fragments joined?
By DNA polymerase I and ligase
What unwinds DNA?
Helicase
_____ relieves supercoiling
DNA gyrase
What generates the RNA primer required by DNA polymerase I for DNA replication?
Primase
In Euk. cells, there are ____ points of origin
Multiple
In Euk. DNA, there in unpacking and repacking of ____
chromatin
In Euk. Cells, DNA polymerase sigma is equivalent to _____ in prok. cells
DNA polymerase I, by adding DNA nad working on both strands independently
in Euk. cells, what is the RNA primer degraded by, instead of DNA polymerase I in Prok. cells
FEN-1 and RNase H1
What is a telomere?
This is a quadruplex DNA conformation (kind of a folding) that occurs are the ends of DNA to keep the RNA primer from falling off.
What are SSB?
single strand binding proteins; they facilitate polymerase binding in prok cells
in Euk Cells, what plays the DNA polymerase role of creating primers?
polymerase alpha