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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is optimum temp for base pairing?
what are the two steps of DNA renaturation?
nucleation and then zippering
When measuring the renaturation speed of DNA's what does N stand for?
the complexity of the DNA
what do Cot curves show
concentration vs. time
True/ false the first step of renaturation is first order?
false- second-order because it depends on concentration and time
why is supercoiling important?
it allows DNA to be in equilib between single stranded region and supertwisted region.
what is another name for DNA gyrase
topisomerase 2
what enzyme can relax the negative supercoil of gyrase?
topoisomerase 1
what are nucleosomes made of?
8 histones (octomer)
what RNA containing enzyme is responsible for adding repeats to the end of DNA?
telomerase p359
what is the name of the drug that inhibits gyrase and is therefore an antibiotic for anthrax
what are the 4 histones?
H2a, H2b, H3, H4.
what mediates assembly of nucleosome beads into 30nm/ 300A fiber
H1 histone
what is known to intercalate and stabilize tolomere so that cancer cell can't divide
If a gene is about to be transcribed what strucutre is it in?
30nm soleniod
what type of hand turn does DNA possess?
right hand turn
The _____ hypothesis states that modification of
histone code
what phosphoralates Retinoblastoma enzyme and leads to it dissassociation from the E2F
G1 CDK (cycline dependent Kinases).
at the 3' region of tRNAs there is a sequence that reads _____ and is where the a.a. is attached.
CCA p 325
what type of RNA can prevent a protein from being produced even though the mRNA has been formed.
small RNA or ncRNA.
_______ is the process where small interfering RNAs prevent a protein from being expressed even though the mRNA may exist.
RNA intererence p 325
_____ is the name of the region where an a.a is attached to a tRNA
acceptor stem CCA p 364`
____ is the region of tRNAs that ribozymes recognize
T(trident)C. p364
why is tertiary structure of tRNA important to bases
because it allows them to maximize their hydrophobic basic stacking.
what leads to the unusual base pairing that allow tRNA to assume unique tertiary structure
wobble pairings NAS 19
what do snRNPs used for?
They edit hnRNA so that it can leave the nucleus.
what type of RNAs lead to RNA interference?
siRNAs - small interferring RNAs
what loop allows ribozymes to recognize tRNAs
the T(trident)C
true / false the nucleotide sequence of ribosomes is conserved from species to species?
falsep368 the secondary strucuture is.
What type of gene is retinblastoma?
tumor suppressor NAS 13
what else besides CDK kindase can cuase retinoblastoma to fall off and transcription to start?
T-Ag viral oncogene
When tRNA is in tertiary L shape how many tertiary structures are H bonded?
what are the three main structural components of E Coli ribozyme?
23S, 16S, 5S
what 2 things are ribosomes made of
rRNA and ribosomal proteins
what do the three unusual H-bonded bases of tRNA add in
establishing the tertiary struct.
what is a DNA molecule made by joining DNA fragments from different sources?
recombinant DNA
Grad student (GS) P1
______ is a method by which DNA is incorporated into a vector capable of replication in a host cell.
cloning think insulin
Grad p2
what were 4 things that allowed easier DNA analysis?
dna restriction nucleases, cloning techniques, rapid sequencing methods, dna ligase
what protects bacterial genome from being destroyed by iets restriction nucleases
what is unique about sticky ends of DNA
sticks ends have 5' overhang and have more effecient ligation.
what are three common characteristics of vectors
1? easy intro into host cells 2 recombo DNA can be replicated in host cell 3 easy identification of cell with recombo DNA
what type of vector would you use for really large segment of recombo DNA
what are some clinical applications of cloning
-treat genetics disorders affecting single gene
- production of vaccines
how do you insert a gene into a plasmid
flank it and plasmid at two spots with restriction enzyme.
Grad 7
what is an advantage to the specific overhangs of the sticky ends in plasmid/ insertion DNA
it ensures that DNA will insert in plasmid in the right orientation
what would you add to mixture of foreign already cut DNA and plasmid to join them.
ligase from T4 bacteriophage
what is it called when you shock DNA so that it will take up foreign plasmid (vector)
go through steps necessary to make a DNA library of a gene ?
1. cut plasmid and DNA with same restriction enzymes
2. mix both with ligase
3. transform
how could you get a probe for selecting a certain gene from DNA library
use clone from ortholog in another similiar species
after getting a probe that matched gene how would you discover colony that had desired gene?
use autoradiography
what type of restriction enzymes are used for recombination
type 2
what is a cDNA library consist of
set of double stranded DNA made from mRNA
what enzyme goes from RNA back to DNA
reverse transcriptase
what are the two ways of making a probe for screenig library for a certain gene
1 make probe if a.a. sequence is known
2 use ortholog
for RNA polymerase what do the 2 alphas do?
they assemble other enzyme subunits.
what does B' do
functions in DNA binding- part of active site
waht does B do
binds NTP and sigma
what are 2 factors that contribute to the melting of DNA at the promoters
1. mostly made of A/T bonds
2. negative supercoiling
what event signals the end of initiation in transcription
when sigma unit falls off notes p20
what is the name for the conserved nucleotide sequence where transcription starts?
consensus sequence
In addition to the pribnow box and the -35 region what region do highly expressed genes have?
upstream elements (UP_)
what part of the alpha subunit bind to the UP element
the CTD.
what is Rho
an ATP dependent helicase
to what region of RNA does Rho bind
C rich
in what area of mRNA does Pol slow down so that Rho can overtake it
G-C rich area