Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/34

Click to flip

34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
what is the name for the enzymes responsible for cutting DNA for recombinant techniques?
restriction endonucleases
what is unique about the recognition sequences typically recognized by restriction endonucleases?
they are palindromic
toward what end of the gel does DNA run?
anode
which cuts more frequently: a 4-, 6-, or 8-base pair endonuclease?
4-base pair
which migrate faster toward ends of gel, smaller or larger DNA fragments?
smaller
which enzyme is used in recombinant DNA technology to covalently seal DNA strands when they come together in the test tube?
ligase
how is vector DNA replication synchronized with the replication of the bacterial genome?
it is not; vector replication is autonomously replicating DNA.
vectors that carry foreign DNA into bacterial cells must be in which 2 forms?
plasmids or bacteriophages
what are 2 ways a vector can incorporate the foreign DNA into it?
replace a fragment with the foreign DNA or add foreign DNA to their own sequence
what are plasmids?
double-stranded circular DNA elements
where is the origin of replication for a plasmid?
on the plasmid itself -- they have their own ORI
what is the size limit of foreign DNA that a plasmid can accommodate?
10kb
what genes are necessary in a plasmid?
antibiotic resistance genes
what is a bacteriophage?
type of DNA virus that infects bacteria
None
through which life cycles do bacteriophages replicate?
lytic
which portion of the phage genome can be replaced by the foreign gene?
the segment devoted to the lysogenic life cycle
what is the limit to the amount of foreign DNA a phage can accommodate?
40kb
in a field of bacteria, how is a phage recognized?
as a plaque where all surrounding bacteria have been lysed
what are the names for 2 techniques that can accommodate foreign DNA over 50kb? What is the major disadvantage for these techniques?
cosmids and bacterial artificial chromosomes; they are very slow
what are the two different DNA clones?
genomic DNA clones and cDNA clones
a genomic DNA clone represents what kind of DNA?
segment of genomic DNA that may contain any element of the genome
what is the normal size of a gene?
over 30kb
in which vectors are genomic DNA clones normally carried? Why?
bacteriophages or cosmids or BAC's; because they are too big for plasmids
for what does cDNA stand?
complementary DNA
why is cDNA created using mRNA?
because mRNA does not include introns, promoter, or intragenic sequnces.
what is a major difference between cDNA and genomic DNA?
cDNA has no introns, promoters, or intragenic sequences.
from which type of cells can genomic DNA be isolated? cDNA?
any cells; cells specific to the expression of mRNA complementary to the cDNA
are cDNAs normally shorter or longer than genomic DNA? Why?
shorter; they have no introns
which enzyme is necessary to create cDNA from mRNA?
reverse transcriptase
what is the sequence that can be used as a primer for reverse transcriptase in production of cDNA? Why?
poly-T; complementary to poly-A tail of mRNA
how is mRNA degraded in the production of cDNA?
RNAse H
how is a second strand of DNA created for cDNA?
DNA polymerase
what is one way that primers are created for production of 2nd DNA strand in cDNA?
RNAse H leaves RNA primers behind via limited cleavage
what is the final step in cDNA creation following prodcution of a double-stranded DNA molecule?
addition of short linkers containing specific restriction sites at each end and the cDNA inserted into cloning vector and propogated in bacteria