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161 Cards in this Set

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The purpose of the carboxyl head on a lipid is to
1) give the molecule its name
2) make the molecule hydrophilic
3) to allow the molecule to be dragged into a water solution
Some examples of unsaturated fatty acids are:
Peanut butter
Olive oil
Fish oil
Chicken Fat
Butter
All fats have a
14-22 carbon chain
a carboxyl group
The micromolecule in lipids are
fatty acids
Some examples of Omega-3 Fatty Acids are:
Fish oil
Canola oil
Walnut oil
Flak seed oil
What are some functions of Triglycerides
-food reserves; 9 dietary calories per gram
-thermal insulation, under skin
-shock absorber; around organs, kidneys, heart
What is the anatomy of a Triglyceride?
-glycerol molecule
-fatty acid tails joined to glycerol by condensation reaction
the chemical name for a triglyceride is
1,2,3-propanetriol
Triglycerides represent how much mass
25 lbs
What is the ideal level for Triglycerides?
80-150 mg/dl
fat cells are alSO known as
adipocytes
Triglyerides are rotated how often?
2-3 weeks (14-21 days)
The hydrolyzing enzyme for glycerides is
lipase
T/F Phospholipids have NO nutritional value
true
95% of the cell membranes molecule count is
phospholipids
What percentage of the cell membrane's mass is due to phospholipids?
80%
What are two functions of waxes?
to waterproof plants(cutin)

to bugproof humans (earwax)
Waxes are usually made of
a long carbon chain or ring with a hydroxyl and fatty acids condensed all over
Do waxes have polar ends?
NO
Olestra, also known as Olean, is undigestable because:
your stomach has no enzymes for it
What are some functions of Prostaglandins?s
-serve as a chemical regulator
-involved in contraction, pain, and swelling, and also the inflammation of the uterus during labor
-Aids platelets in blood clotting
-contribute to PMS (possiblY)
-alter blood pressure
-raise temperature
Which lipid acts on cells around it?

Prostaglandins or Leukotrienes?
Prostaglandins
Which lipid acts on the cell it is produced in?

Prostaglandins or Leukotrienes?
Leukotrienes
PGE3 has how many double bonds?
3
Are Prostaglandins short lived or long lived?
short lived
Prostaglandins are made of:
o A five member ring
o Double bonds
o A 20 carbon fatty acid
o Oxygens
What is the difference in the anatomy of a prostaglandin and a leukotriene?
Leukotrienes are missing the 5 member ring
Leukotrienes are involved in?
-inflammation
-anaphylactic shock
-allergic reactions
What is a small molecule that is produced at one side of the body but has an effect at a distant location?
a hormone
Hormones are effective at 1/???????? of a gram
billionth
What makes steroids different from other lipids?
They do not contain fatty acids
Why are steroids considered lipids?
They are very hydrophobic
What are some functions of steroids
-varied metabolic jobs
-many are hormones
-help carry fatty acids
-anti-inflammatory
-protien synthesis
_______=buildup
_______=break down
anabolic,catabolic
What is the most abundant animal steroid?
Cholesterol
How many grams of cholesterol should you have for every 130 pounds of body weight?
175g
How much cholesterol is made in the liver?
800mg/day
How much can you change your cholesterol through controlling your diet?
15mg
What drug is used to change the cholesterol level?
lipitor/statin
What part of an animal contains the most cholesterol?
the liver
Is there any cholesterol in plants?
no of course not
If you dont have cholesterol, what are some of the things your body cannot produce?
testosterone, estrogen, bile salts, vitamin D
Vitiman A is also known as?
retinol
vitiman A is stored in the
liver
vitiman A is a precursor to
carotene
vitiman A defiency causes
poor night sight
vitiman B regulates ___ deposits
Ca
vitiman B deficiency causes?
rickets
Hydrocortisone is a anti-_____
prostaglandin
______regualtes glucose metabolism
Hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone thins the _______
membrane
Hydrocortisone helps to regulate ______
insulin
Diabetics dont have ______ thats why their insulin levels spike
Hydrocortisone
_________ is responsible for aggresive behavior
Testosterone
Testosterone is made in the _______ and hte _______ _______
testes, adrenal cortex
LArge muscle mass is caused by the steroid ________?
Testosterone
______________ is made in the ovaries and adrenal cortex
Estrogen
Estrogen protects against ______ ______ and ________
heart disease, cancer
T/F
effects of anabolic steroids are different for men and women
TRUE
Some effects of anabolic steroids in men include:
baldness, gynecomastia, impotence, atrophy of the testicles, and pain in urinating
Some effects of anabolic steroids solely in women include:
breast atrophy and growth of facial hair
Some effects of anabolic steroids in both women and men include:
-bad breath
-acne
-damage of liver and introduction of Cancer
-high blood pressure
Who coined the term "cell"?
Robert Hooke
Who coined the term wee animacules?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
The term for how large an image appears is?
magnification
total magnification= _____X_____
objective,eyepiece lens
property that determines wheter or not close objects will appear seperate
resolution
The best magnification for a light microscope is?
2000x
The ability to cause disease, either can or cannot
pathogenicity
Virulence is
the degree of pathogenicity
an epidemic covers a (small, large, worldwide)
large area
a pandemic covers a (small, large, worldwide)
wordwide area
a endemic covers a (small,large, worldwide)
small area, and it happens frequently
Who isolated lepers, buried their waste, and saved themselves from the plague?
Moses and the Jews
Who made doctors take oaths, belived that Disease was passed from one person to another, and that people had immune responses?
the Greeks
The _____ thought that seeds of Dx enters mouth to cause Dx
Romans
Who made the first compound microscope?
Robert Hooke
Who was the inventor of taxonomy?
Linnaeus
"cell theory" was proposed by?
Schwann
Cell theory consisted of two parts....
a) cells are the foundation of life
b)new cells are formed from old
Who tried to disperse Spontaneous Generation using meat in a jar
Redi
Who had somethign to do with broth in flasks?
Spallanzi
Who used swan neck flasks to finally disprove spontaneous generation?
Pasteur
Who had 4 postulates, used in-vitro techniques, and dealth with anthrax?
Koch
What were Koch's postulates?
1)Agent always seen with disease
2)isolate in pure culture
3)Inoculate into healthy host to cause disease
4)re-isolate agent(organism)
Who had something to do with linking Autopsy's of childbed(fever), and no washing of hands?
Semmelweis
Who used carbonic acid spray to disinfect wounds in surgery?
Lister
Who soaked threads in smallpox pus and passed the thread through a cut to immunize a child, "variolation"?
Lady Montague
Who had to do with cowpox variolations?
Jenner
Who realized that with chicken cholera, old cultures were less dangerous, and used them for immunization?
Pasteur
used a magic bullet to kill microbes (syphillis)
Ehrlich
Who had to do with pencillium molds, and found it difficult to isolate penicillin?
Fleming
Who mass produced penicillin?
Chain and Florey
What were the 5 functions of a skeleton?
Movement
Protection of Organs
Support
Mineral Storage
Hematopoeisis(making blood cells)
Two types of bone tissue are?
Cancellous and Compact
_________ bone tissue is also called spongy bone, is lightweight, and is made of trabeculae.
Cancellous
How much does a skeleton weigh at adult age?
35-45 lbs
What is the name for a mature bone cell?
osteocyte
____________ destroy bone cells, and osteoblasts are baby cells
Osteoclasts
Tendons connect muscles to ?
bones
Tendons connect bone to
muscle
The two main parts of a skeleton are the
axial and appendicular
The _____ bone connects to the tongue to keep it from fallign off
hyoid
what is the name of the flap below the tongue
lingual frenulum
The first 7 vertabrae are labled the ______ - # or the C-#
cervical (ex. C1, C2)
The atlas is the vertabrae that holds up the?
head
The _____ is the vertabrae that lets the head turn.
axis
Who mass produced penicillin?
Chain and Florey
What were the 5 functions of a skeleton?
Movement
Protection of Organs
Support
Mineral Storage
Hematopoeisis(making blood cells)
Two types of bone tissue are?
Cancellous and Compact
_________ bone tissue is also called spongy bone, is lightweight, and is made of trabeculae.
Cancellous
How much does a skeleton weigh at adult age?
35-45 lbs
What is the name for a mature bone cell?
osteocyte
____________ destroy bone cells, and osteoblasts are baby cells
Osteoclasts
Tendons connect muscles to ?
bones
Ligaments connect bone to
bone
The two main parts of a skeleton are the
axial and appendicular
The _____ bone connects to the tongue to keep it from fallign off
hyoid
what is the name of the flap below the tongue
lingual frenulum
The first 7 vertabrae are labled the ______ - # or the C-#
cervical (ex. C1, C2)
The atlas is the vertabrae that holds up the?
head
The _____ is the vertabrae that lets the head turn.
axis
This includes the clavicle, humerus, scapula, etc.
Pectoral Girdle
The most frequently broken bone is the?
clavicle
The scapula consists of the acromion process and the ______________, which forms the socket of the shoulder joint
glenoid fossae
The _____ is the bone under your biceps
humerus
The olecranal fossa is in the
humerus
The ____ articulates with the humerus and the carpals
ulna
The ______ is the bone that rotates in the radial notch on the ulna, an allows the rotation of the forearm. It also lines up with the thumb
radius
There are _ number of carpals
8
When you hear pisiform, you should think of the?
carpals
The metacarpals are in the ___ of the hand, and there are _ of them
palm, 5
the fingers and the thumb are collectivley called
digits
the fingers and the thumb are made of ______ bones
phalange
each finger has 3 bones, what are they
the distal, middle, and proximal
the name for the thumb is the
pollex
How many phalanges are there per hand?
14 (thumb has 2)
The name for the pelvis is the
innominate
What is made of fibrocartilage, and softens under influences of pregnancy hormones?
the pubic symphysis
The hip socket is also known as the
acetabulum, or the vinegar bowl. (think acetate = vinegar and table=bowl lol)
The longest, strongest, heaviest bone in the body is the
femur
the ____ articulates with the femur proximally, the talus distally.
tibia
Where does the patellar ligament attach?
the tibial tuberosity
the name for the kneecap is the
patella
What does sesmoid mean?
shaped like a sesame seed i think
How many tarsals are there?
7
The heel bone is called the
calcaneus
the achilles tendon is the
tendocalcaneous
the _______ is the rounded top of the calcaneus
talus
# of metatarsals?
5
How many digits are there on each foot and hand?
5
How many phalanges are there in each foot?
14
The big toe is called the
hallux (made of 2 phalanges)
The interior surface of the metatarsal is the
sesmoid
What color are spores in a malachite green test
green
what color are normal bacteria if you perform a malachite green test?
red
What chemical is used in testing for starch?
iodine, and it turns black
What chemical is used in testing for protien?
Biuret’s Solution, turns purple from blue
What chemical is used in testing for lipids?
None, you just rub the food on a paper bag and see if a spot is left behind. Wait to see if the spot dries.
What chemical is used in testing for monosaccharied? This only works on liquids.
Benedicts Solution , and it wil turn either green for a little amount, orange for a medium amount, and baby caca orange/brown for a large amount.
This was time consuming
and hopefully useful