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44 Cards in this Set

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1) Net number of ATPs produced per palmatitate?
2) net number ATPs per glucose?
~129 ATPs
~36 ATPs
Uses of FAs?
1) plasma lipoproteins
2)in liver B-oxidation gives us ketone bodies
Describe FA uptake
Fats ingested. Taken up in intestines where bile salts emulsify forming micels. These travel over gut wall and are converted into TG which are mobilized in the form of chylomicrons and dumped into blood stream. Lipoprotien lipase breaks them up and FA are then incorporated into Fat cells or mm cells.
TG carrier in blood stream
Lipase in
1)glucagon world
2)insulin world
1) Hormone sensitive lipase
2)Lipoprotein lipase
How is hormone sensitive lipase effected by hormones?
State pathway.
Epinephrine or glucagon (NE or ACTH) bind to hormone receptor site and activate adenylate cyclase. cAMP levels are raised intercellularly which activates C protein kinase. This in tern activates HS lipase by phosphorylating it. Hormone sensitive lipase takes TGs to FA and sends them into blood stream on the back of Albumen.
1)How do you activate FA for transport in fatty acid metabolism?
2)Thermodynamically favorable process?
1)Acetyl coA synthetase attaches CoA. ATP is required.
2) yes
1)Role of Carnitine in B-oxidation ?
2)Role of CPTs
3) If we don't have carnitine
Carnitine is the barge that brings activated FA from cytosol across the intermembrane space (H+ rich) into the mitochondrial matrix.
2) CPTs exchange the ACoAs for the carnitines on either side of the mitochondrial membrane.
3)can't utilize FA
Carnitine Deficiency Syndrome
FA are not adequately taken into matrix for oxidation.
Results in fatigue & poor exercise tolerance
ATPs generated from Acetyl CoA
12 ATPs
what are the 2 Key rxns in FA biosynthesis and significances of them?
1)Acetyl CoA carboxylase
-RLS,ABC enzyme
- produces Malonyl CoA (marker for FA synthesis)
2)Fatty Acid Synthase Enzyme
- Pantothenate is part of the enzyme (vitamen requirement)
Describe FA biosynthesis?
Take glucose convert it to pyruvate inside mitochondrion. Inside mitochondria convert it to ACoA[2 C entity] to OAA[4 C carrier] (could think of it as 2 pyruvates one going to each!) condense in the form of citrate which goes across membrane via the citrate shuttle to stimulate FA biosynthesis. Citrate is found in TCA cycle in mitochondria. Only reason in cytosol is FA biosynthesis. Citrate in cytosol is cleaved via citrate lysol into OAA[4 C carrier] & AcCoA [2C entity] OAA can be recycled back in the cell via the malate aspartate shuttle. And keep shuttling out AcCoA for FA biosynthesis. 8 AcCoA via ACoA carboxylase into Malonyl CoA & FA synthase (7 rounds condensation) we get 1 palmate. Palmate put CoA is activated to prevent changing of pH make it into TG and ship out on back of VLDL.
Citrate Lyase Enzyme
Important in FA synthesis.
converts Citrate to OAA & Acetyl CoA; induced by insulin.
Malic Enzyme
Important in FA synthesis.
Converts Malate to pyruvate and produces NADPH(glue). Induced by insulin
Regulation of Acetyl CoA carboxylase
+ : insulin {dp}(hormonal)
citrate (local)

- : glucagon {p} (hormonal)
palmitoyl CoA
FA synthase
7 rounds condensation per 16C molecule; uses malonyl CoA & 2 NADPHs
Describe coordinate regulation
in the insulin world, we want to turn off B oxidation which takes place inside mitochondria. CPT 1 prevents FA in cytosol from entering mitochondria. Malonyl CoA is the negative feedback regulator of CPT1. If there is high leveles of malonyl CoA in the cytosol. CPT1 knows to stop the carnitine "barge"
2 fates of palmate
FA alpha end
carboxylate end (#1)
omega end
methyl end (# depends on chain length)
Sites of unsaturation
are 3 carbons removed from the w-terminus
families of FA’s:
w-3, w-6, w-9
Linoleate[ linoleic FA]-
Linoleate[linoleic FA]- What family?
w6 essential fatty acid
Linoleate[ linoleic FA]-
alpha linolenate
18:3 ^9,12,15
alpha linolenate - what family
w3 essential fatty acid
alpha linolenate
essential fatty acids
FA that animals can't make
y-linolenate acid
mammals can produce
{20:4 - ^5,6,11,14 w6)
– important because it generates hormones– ecosonide
where does elongation of FA occur
cytosol or ER or lysosomes
elongation of FA occurs by
Building up FA from C16 by addition to AcCo A
Fatty acyl CoA desaturase uses oxygen and hydrogen ions to desaturate. Takes place in ER using cytocrome proteins and NADH
desaturases in animals
4,5,6,& 9
Arachidonic Acid is produced from _______
W6 FA from alpha linoleic acid give rise to _______
group 1 & group 2 eicosanoides
group 2 eicosanoids are specifically from
arachidonic acid
w3 FA are from
alpha linolenate (specifically epa)
-w3 from alpha linolenic acid
-important for visual acuity in infants
Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency
w9 accumulation
w3 deficient in in pregnancy
child at risk for low visual acuity, learning disabilities
w6 deficiency
growth problems, skin lesions, reproduction failure