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42 Cards in this Set

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Fatty Acids
monocarboxylic acid with hydrocarbon chains that must be at least 12 carbons,
Function Groups: carboxylic acid and acyl chain.
Double bonds in hydrocarbon chains.
the double bonds are in the cis conf.
Cis form occurs in nature.
Triacylglyerols

(Fatty acid)
glycerol backbone with 3 fatty acid tails.

for storage and transport in adipose tissue.
insulation
water repellent
not found in membrane.
Phosphoacylglyerol

(Fatty acid)
glycerol backbone with 2 fatty acids and a phosphate attached.

are present in the bilayer, membrane - are found in the membrane because they are ampiphatic.
Wax esters

(Fatty acid)
consists of a long fatty acid chain and a long chain alcohol.

forms an ester bond via esterification.
Sphingolipids:
made up of the sphingosine backbone instead of the glycerol backbone.
The first carbon is a fatty acid chain.
The second is an alcohol.
The third is a amine.
The fourth carbon is also an acohol.

they are ampipathic- so they are present in the bilayer.
MP of unsaturated double bonds.
unsaturated fatty acids have a lower MP that saturated.
Name the two fatty acids that are common in the bilayer.
shingolipids
phosphoacylglyerol
2 Examples of glycoshingoplipids.
cerebrosides - are neutral and contain sugars

gangliosides - have a neg. charge and contain sialic acid.
Cholesterol
made of terpenes and derived from isoprene units.

4 fused rings with one hydrophobic -OH group. This is hydrophillic due to this group.
Terpenes
Vit E. is a terpene. Vit. A and Vit K are mixed terpenes.
not found in the membrane.
bilayer proteins
proteins make of 50 of bilay by weight.

consists of integral and periperal proteins.
Peripheral membrane proteins
can be removed from the membrane by changing salt conc. and pH.
Loosely associated via noncovalent interactions in H+ bond and electrostatic interactions.

Primarly assocaited with polar groups.
Integral membrane proteins
proteins with hydrophobic surfaces and nonpolar amino acids associate with the membrane.
have hydrophobic and hydrophillic regions.

detergent is essential for removal.
Lipid linked proteins.
proteins can be linked to the membrane via acylation, prenylation, or a GPI anchor.
Glycosylated proteins on surface of membrane.
proteins are glysocylated with sugars to form protective surface by associating with water.
liposomes
used to deliver hydrophillic molecules like DNA and protein to targeted locations and membranes.
3 ways to activate a molecule for a metabolic pathway.
1. phosphorylation
2. adding nucleotide
3. acyl-CoA
What happens to electrons in a redox reaction.
they are donated to a coenzyme and the coenzyme is reduced.
Name 3 coenzymes involved in redox reactions
NADH
FADH2
CoQ
NADH vs. NADPH participate in what specific type of reaction.
NADH is catabolic
NADPH is anabolic
3 reasons ATP is choosen to store energy
cleavage of ATP leads to more products and gives an increase in entropy.

increase resonance with the cleaved phosphate

reduce electrostatic repulsion between adjoining phosphates in ATP.
What are the ecosinoids derived from?
arachidonic acid - 20 carbons.
3 classes of econsanoids:

structure and function
(all hormones)
1. prostaglandin
contains a pentane ring.
promoted inflamation, pain, fever, vasoconstriction and vasodilation.

2. thromboxiene
contains a six membered ring containing an oxygen.
6 membered cyclic ether ring.
invovled in blood clotting and inhibited by asprine.

3. Leukotrienes
contain 4 double bonds and 3 are conjugated.
linear structure with no rings.
chemotactic agent and invovled in asthma.
enzyme catalyzed reactions are always reversible or irreversible?
reversible.
Structure of the 4 sugars.
glyceraldehyde is a triose.
Glucose is a hexose and an aldehyde.
Galactose is a hexose and an epimer of glucose.
Fructose is a hexose and a ketone.
How many carbons do carbohydrates contain.
3-9 carbons

formula: (CH2O)n
Anomers
differ in configuration around the carbonyl carbon.
What conf. do sugars usually exist in?
D conf.
Formation of hemiacetal and hemiketals
intramolecular reaction between carbonyl and OH group.

gives the formation of rings.

pyranose- 5 membered rings.
furanose- 6 membered rings.
monosaccharides
oligosaccharides
polysaccharides.
mono-one sugar unit.
They are linked together via glycosidic bonds.
Oligo- 2-20 sugars
Poly- 20 or more sugars
Common disaccharides
Lactose- galactose and glucose liked via B bond.
Sucrose - glucose and fructose.
Starch - maltose and is 2 glucoses linked together via and (alph 1,4)
Cellulose - 2 sugars linked via a (beta 1,4)
Cellulose
in plant cell walls.
homopolysaccharide of glucose linked via a B(1,4) linkage.
Chitin
structural polysaccharide.
has a similar structure to cellulose that it is a homopolysaccharide of glucose and linked via a B(1,4) linkage.
found in the exoskeleton of insects.
Starch
storage polysaccharide in plants.
mixture of alpha-amylose and amylopectin.
linked via an alpha(1,4)

digested by alpha and beta amylase.
Glycogen
storage polysaccharide in animals.

homopolysaccharide composed of glucose.
linked via alpha(1,4) and branch points are alpha(1,6)
Peptidoglycan
major component in bacterial cell wall.
heteropolysaccharide of repeating NAM and GAG units.
Glycoproteins
protein with a covalently bonded carbohydrate.

N-linked:
linked in asparagine via an amide bond.

O-Linked:
linked to serine or threonine via a glycosidic bond.
both occur post-tranlationally
Function of sugars covalently bonded to protein:
affect the 3-D conf. of the protein.
can stiffen and stablize the backbone while shielding it from proteases in the ECM.
Important in protein function and localization in the membrane.
Interactions between carbs and protein.
Non-covalent include H-bonds, vander waals, electrostatic
ABO blood type groups
they are included in glycoproteins.
the glycoproteins are antigens on the surface of the cell that is involved in self recognition.
Selectins
glycoproteins that recognize specific carb. structures.
selectins are located on inside of blood vessel, and participate in the movement of neutrophils along the blood vessel.
the selectins are attaching to vessel and recognize carb. on the surface of the neutrophil allowing it to roll along the surface of the vessel.