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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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which RNA pol in eukaryotes is responsible for transcription of mRNA that encodes proteins?
RNA polymerase II
what is the name of the conserved sequence 25-35bp upstream of transcription start site in the promoter of eukaryotes?
TATA box
what must occur to RNA pol II for transcription to occur?
it must be phosphorylated at its extended C-terminal tail.
what is the function of general transcription factors?
to recognize and unwind the promoter
None
are more or fewer proteins and cis-acting sequences required for transcription in chromatin than in naked DNA?
more
what is the name of the two types of cis-acting sequences required for activating transcription in vivo, from DNA bound to chromatin?
promoter proximal sequences and enhancers
are promoter proximal sequences located upstream or downstream of TATA box?
upstream
are enhancers located upstream or downstream of promoter? If located downstream of promoter, where are they usually found?
either upstream or downstream; in introns
what do enhancers determine?
when and where a gene will be expressed
which types of factors bind to promoter proximal sequences and enhancers?
regulatory factors
which types of messages about transcription do regulatory factors relay?
whether to activate or repress transcription from the promoter
to what do DNA-binding domains in regulatory factors bind?
to specific sequences in promoter proximal sequences and enhancers
DNA-binding domains in regulatory factors are connected to which type of domain?
activator or repressor
repression and activation domains bind what? (give 3 examples)
mediators, histone modifying factors, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes
what is the function of the mediator?
to control assembly of general transcription factors and RNA pol II
does the presence of histone normally activate or repress the transcription of DNA?
repress
which part of histones is targeted by histone acetylases, methylases, kinases, and ubiquitin ligases?
N-term tails of histones H3 and H4
What are HATs? What do they do?
histone acetyl transferases; attach acetyl groups to lysine residues in N-term tails of histones
what are two effects of histone acetylation?
1) neutralization of positive charge, thereby loosening the ionic interactions with DNA and 2) marking of chromatin so it is recognized by other types of chromatin remodeling proteins
what are HDACs? What do they do?
histone deacetylases; they remove acetyl groups from histones and repress transcription
What is the role of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes?
to clear the nucleosome from the promoter for assembly of the preinitiation complex
do all regulatory factors have either activation or repression domains?
no, some have both.
how is communication of regulatory factors with promoter achieved over long distances?
looping out of intervening DNA
which sequences are responsible for preventing enhancers from affecting transcription from adjacent genes on chromosome?
insulating sequences