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24 Cards in this Set

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TCA cycle produces
how many NADH, FADH2, CO2, and GTP per acetyl CoA?
That equals how many ATP?
What about per glucose?
3 NADH
1 FADH2
2 CO2
1GTP

=12 ATP/acetyl-CoA

(2x everything per glucose)
What 5 cofactors are needed for the alpha-ketoglutarate complex?
Same cofactors as needed for the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex.

-Pyrophosphate (B1, thiamine; TPP)
-FAD (B2, riboflavin)
-NAD (B3, niacin)
-CoA (B5, pantothenate)
-Lipoic acid
List the TCA cycle from Pyruvate to Oxaloacetate
Pyruvate -> Acetyl-CoA -> Citrate -> cis aconitate -> Isocitrate -> alpha Ketoglutarate -> Succinyl CoA -> Succinate -> Fumarate -> Malate -> Oxaloacetate
Can I Keep Selling Sex For Money, Officer?
How many ATP per NADH and FADH2 in the electron transport chain?
1 NAHD -> 3 ATP
1 FADH2 -> 2 ATP
3 categories of oxidative phosphorylation poisons in the electron transport chain
-Electron transport inhibitors
-ATPase inhbitor
-uncoupling agents
Name 4 Electron transport inhibitors and how it works
rotenone
antimycin A
CN-
CO

-directly inhibit electron transport, causing a ↓ of proton gradient and block ATP synthesis
Name an ATPase inhibitor and explain how it works
oligomycin
directly inhibits mitochondrial ATPase, causing an ↑ of proton gradient, but no ATP is produced because electron transport stops.
Name an uncoupling agent and explain how it works
2, 4-DNP

↑ permeability of membrane, causing a ↓ of proton gradient and ↑ Oxygen consumption. ATP synthesis stops. Electron transport continues
4 irreversible enzymes in gluconeogenesis

a deficiency in these enzymes can cause what disease?
Pyruvate carboxylase
PEP carboxykinase
Fructose-1,6- bisphosphatase
Glucose-6-phosphatase

a deficiency in these enzymes can cause hypoglycemia
Pathway Produces Fresh Glucose
Pyruvate carboxylase works where and catalyzes what reaction

what cofactors does it need?
mitochondria
pyruvate → oxaloacetate

requires biotin, ATP.
activated by acetyl-CoA
PEP carboxykinase works where and catalyzes what reaction

what cofactors does it need?
cytosol

oxaloacetate → phosphoenolpyruvate

requires GTP
Fructose-1,6- bisphosphatase works where and catalyzes what reaction
cytosol

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate → Fructorse-6-P
Glucose-6-phosphatase works where and catalyzes what reaction
Cytosol
Glucose-6-P → glucose
von Gierke's disease is caused by?
a lack of glucose-6-phosphatase in the liver
what organs can participate in gluconeogenesis?
liver, kidney, intestinal epithelium (NOT muscle)
The pentose phosphate pathway (HMP shunt) produces what from what for what?

(2 answers)
produces ribose-5-P from G6P for nucleotide synthesis

and produces NADPH from NADP+ for fatty acid and steroid biosynthesis and for maintaining reduced glutathione inside RBCs
The pentose phosphate pathway (HMP shunt) occurs in cytoplasm or mitochondria?
cytoplasm
how much ATP is used and produced in The pentose phosphate pathway (HMP shunt)?
none
what organs does The pentose phosphate pathway (HMP shunt) take place in?
lactating mammary glands
liver
adrenal cortex

-all sites of fatty acid or steroid synthesis
Describe how Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency works
-G6PD is a rate-limiting enzyme in the HMP shunt (which yields NADPH).
-NADPH is needed to keep glutathione reduced, which in turn detoxifies free radicals and peroxides.
- ↓ NADPH in RBCs → HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA due to poor RBC defense against oxidizing agents (fava beans, sulfonamides, primaquine) and antituberculosis drugs.
fava beans, sulfonamides, primaquine are all examples of
oxidizing agents (leads to hemolytic anemia in G6PD)
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is more common among which racial group?
blacks
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency has what type of bodies?
Heinz bodies -- altered Hemoglobin precipitates within RBCs
think of the blood becoming like "Heinz" ketchup because of precipitating hemoglobin. Then imagine putting ketchup on your fava beans
How is Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency inherited?
X-linked recessive