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172 Cards in this Set

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stereoisomers
isomers that have atoms bonded in the same order, but w/different arrangements in space
aldose
monosaccharides that contain an aldehyde group
chiral
objects or molecules that have mirror images that cannot be superimposed
achiral
molecules w/mirror images that are superimposable
amylose
an unbranched polymer of starch composed of glucose units joined by alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds
fructose
a monosaccharide found in honey and fruit juices; it it combined w/glucose in sucrose. Also called levulose and fruit sugar
glycogen
a polysaccharide formed in the liver and muscles for the storage of glucose as an energy reserve. It is compsed of glucose in a highly branched polymer joined by a a-1,4- and a-1,6-glycosidic bonds
Haworth structure
the cyclic structure that represents the closed chain of a monosaccharide
lactose
a disaccharide consisting of glucose and galactose found in milk and milk products
maltose
a disaccharide consisting of 2 glucose units; it is obtained from the hydrolysis of starch and in germination grains
mutarotation
the conversion btwn a and B anomers
sucrose
a dissacharide composed of glucose and fructose; a nonreducing sugar, commonly called table sugar or "sugar."
cerebroside
a glycolipid consisting of sphingosine, a fatty acid, and a monosaccaride (usually galactose)
esterification
the rxn of an alcohol such as glycerol w/acids to form ester bonds
fat
another term for solid triacyglycerols
fluid mosaic model
the concept that cell membranes are lipid bilayer structures that contain an assorment of polar lipids and proteins in a dynamic, fluid arrangement
glycerophospholipids
polar lipids of glycerol attached to two fatty acids and a phosphate group connected to an amino group such as choline, serine or ethanolamine
hydrogenation
the addition of hydrogen to unsaturated fats
lipid bilayer
a model of a cell membrane in which phospholipids are arranged in two rows interspersed w/proteins arranged at different depths
lipids
a family of compounds that in nonpolar in nature and not soluble in water; includes fats, waxes, phospholipids and steroids
monounsaturated fatty acids
fatty acids that contain two or more double bonds
polyunsaturated fatty acids
fatty acids that contain two or more double bonds
saturated fatty acids
fatty acids that have no double bonds; they have higher melting points than unsaturated lipids and are usually solid at room temps
steroids
types of lipid composed of a multicyclic ring system
wax
the ester of a long-chain alcohol and a long-cahin saturated fatty acid
a helix
a secondary level of protein structure, in which hydrogen bonds connect the NH of one peptide bond w/the C=O of a peptide bond later in the chain to form a coiled or corkscrew structure
amino acid
the building blcok of proteins, consisting of an amino grp, a carboxylic acid trp and a unique side group attached to the alpha carbon
B-pleated sheet
a secondary level of protein structure that consists of hydrogen bonds btwn peptide links in parallel polypeptide chains
collagen
the most abundant form of protein in the body, which is composed of fibrils of triple helixes w/hydrogen bonding btwn -OH grps of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine
disulfide bonds
covalent -S-S- bonds that form btwn the -SH grp of cysteines in a protein to stabilize the tertiary structure
essential amino acids
amino acids that must be supplied by the diet b/c they are not synthesized by the body
globular proteins
proteins that acquire a compat shape from attractions btwn the R grp of the aa residues in the protein
hydrogen bonds
attractions btwn the polar R grps such as -OH, -NH2, and -COOH of aa's in a polypeptide chain
hydrophilic aa
an aa having polar, acidic or basic R groups that are attracted to water; "water-loving"
hydrophilic interactions
the attraction btwn polar R groups on the protein surface and water
hydrophobic aa
a nonpolar aa w/hydrocarbon R groups; "water-fearing"
hydrophobic interactions
the attraction btwn nonpolar R grps in a tertiary structure of a globular protein
isoelectric poin (pI)
the pH at wich an aa is in the neutral zwitterion form
N terminal
the aa in a peptide written on the left w/the unreacted or free amino grp (-NH3+)
nonpolar aa's
aa's that are not soluble in water b/c they contain a nonpolar R grp
peptide
the combination of two or more aa's joined by peptide bonds; depeptide, tripeptide, and so on
peptide bond
the amide bond that joins aa's in polypeptides and proteins
polar aa's
aa's athat are soluble in water b/c their R grp is polar: hydroxyl (OH), thiol (SH), carbonyl (C=O), amino (NH2), or carboxyl (COOH)
chiral carbon
a carbon atom that is bonded to four different atoms or groups of atoms
galactose
a monosaccharide that occurs combined w/glucose in lactose
glycosides
acetal products of a monosaccharide reacting w/an alcohol or another sugar
achiral
molecules w/mirror images that are superimposable
cellulose
an unbranched polysaccharide composed of glucose units linked by B-1,4-glycosidic bonds that cannot be hydrolyzed by the human digestive system
monosaccaride
a polyhydroxy compound that contains an aldehyde or ketone grp
enantiomers
stereoisomers that are mirror images that cannot be superimposed on eachother
amylopectin
a branched-chain polymer of starch composed of glucose units joined by alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6- glycosidic bonds
anomers
the isomers of cyclic hemiacetals of monosaccharides that have a hydroxyl grp on C1 (or C2). In the alpha anomer, the OH is drawn downward; in the beta isomer the OH is up
disaccharides
carbohydrates composed of 2 monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic bond
iodine test
a test for amylose that forms a blue-black color after iodine is added to the sample
Fischer projection
a system for drawing stereoisomers that shows horizontal lines for bonds coming forward, and vertical lines for bonds going back w/the chiral atom at the center
carbohydrate
a simple or complex sugar composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
fermentation
a rxn of glucose, fructose, maltose, or sucrose in which the sugar reacts w/enzymes in yeast to give ethanol and carbon dioxide gas
glucose
the most prevalent monosaccharide in the diet. An aldohexose that is found in fruits, vegetables, corn syrup and honey. Also known as blood sugar and dextrose. Combines in glycosidic bonds to form most of the polysaccharides
glycosidic bond
the acetal bond that forms when an alcohol or hydroxyl grp of monosaccharide adds to a hemiacetal. It is the type of bond that links monosaccharide units in di- or polysaccharides
ketose
a monosaccharide that contains a ketone grp
polysaccharides
polymers of many monosaccharide units, usually glucose. Polysaccharides differ in the types of glycosidic bonds and the amount of branching in the polyer
reducing sugar
a carbohydrate w/a free aldehyde grp capable of reduding the Cu2+ in Benedict's reagent
saccharide
a term from the Latin word saccharum, meaning "sugar"; is is used to describe the carbohydrate family
cephalins
phospholipids found in brain and verve tissues that incorporate the amino alcohol serine or ethanolamine
cholesterol
the most prevalent of the steroid compounds found in cellular membranes; needed for the synthesis of vitamin D, hormones, and bile acids
fatty acids
long-chain carboxylic acids found in fats
ganglioside
a glycolipid consisting of sphingosine, a fatty acid, and two or more monosaccharides
glcyosphingolipids
the phospholipid that combines sphingosine w/a fatty acid bonded to the nitrogen grp and one or more monosacchareides bonded by a glycosidic link, which replaces the -OH group of sphingosine
lecithins
glycerophospholipids containing choline as the amino alcohol
lipidoses
genetic diseases in which a deficiency of an enzyme for the hydrolysis of a lipid causes the accumulation of that lipid to toxic levels
lipoprotein
a combination of nonpolar lipids w/glycerophospholipids and proteins to form a polar complex that can be transported thru body fluids
oil
another term for liquid triaclglycerols
prostagladins
a number of compounds derived from arachidonic acid that regulate several physiological processes
sphingolipids
phospholipids in which spingosine has replaced glycerol
triacylglycerols
a family of lipids composed of three fatty acids bonded thru ester bonds to glycerol, a trihydroxy alcohol
acidic amino acid
an amino acid that has a carboxylic acid side chain (-COOH), which ionizes as a weak acid
a-keratins
fibrous proteins that contain mostly a-helixes found in hair, nails, and skin
basic amino acid
an amino acid that contains an amino (-NH2) group that can ionize as a weak base
C terminal
the amino acid that is the last amino acid in a peptide chain w/an unreacted or free carboxyl grp (-COO-)
denaturation
the loss of secondary and tertiary protein strucure caused by heat, acids, bases, organic compounds, heavy metals, and/or agitation
electrophoresis
the use of electrical current to separate proteins or other charged molecules w/different isoelectric points
fibrous protein
a protein that is insoluble in water; consistes of polypeptide chains w/a-helixes or B-pleated sheets, that make up the fibers of hair, wool, skin, nails, and silk
primary structure
the sequence of the aa's in a protein
protein
a term used for biologically active polypeptides that have may aa's linked together by peptide bonds
quanternary structure
a protein structure in which 2 or more protein subunits form an active protein
salt bridge
the ionic bond formed btwn side grps of basic and acidic aa's in a protein
secondary structure
the formation of an a-helix, B-pleated sheet, or triple helix
tertiary structure
the folding of the secondary structure of a protein into a compact structure that is stabilized by the interactions of R groups such as ionic and disulfide bonds
triple helix
the protein structure found in collagen consisting of three polypeptide chains woven together like a braid
zwitterion
the dipolar form of an aa consisting of two oppositely charged ionic regions, -NH3+ and -COO-
active site
a pocket in a part of the tertiary enzyme structure that binds substrate and catalyzes a rxn
triple helix
the protein structure found in collagen consisting of three polypeptide chains woven together like a braid
active site
a pocket in a part of the tertiary enzyme structure that binds substrate and catalyzes a rxn
activity
the rate at which an enzyme catalyzes the rsn that converts subtrate to product
allosteric enzyme
an enzyme that regulates the rae of a rxn when a regulator molecule attaches to a site other than the active site
antibiotic
an irreversible inhibitor produced by a bacteria, mold, or yeast that is toxic to bacteria
catalyst
a substance that takes part in a rxn to lower the activation energy, but is not changed
coenzyme
an organic molecule, usually a vitamin, required as a cofactor in enzyme action
competitive inhibitor
a molecule w/a structure similar to the substrate that inhibits enzyme action by competing for the active site
enzymes
globular proteins that catalyze biological rxns
enzyme-substrate (ES) complex
an intermediate consisting of an enzyme-catalyzed rsn
fat-soluble vitamins
vitamins that are not soluble in water and can be stored in the liver and body fat
feedback control
a type of inhibition in which an end product inhibits the first enzyme in a sequence of enzyme-catalyzed rxns
induced-fit model
a model of enzyme action in which a substrate induces an enzyme to modify ifts shape to give an optimal fit w/the substrate structure
inhibitors
substances that make an enzyme inactive by interfering w/its ability to react w/a substrate
irreversible inhibition
an inhibition caused by the covalent binding of an inhibitor to a part of the active site that cannot be reversed by adding more substrate
isoenzymes
isoenzymes catalyze the same rxn, but different combinations of polypeptide subunits
lock-and-key model
a model of an enzyme in which the substrate , like a key, exactly fits the shape of the lock, wich is the specific shape of the active site
negative regulator
a molecule or end product that slows down or stops a catalytic rsn by binding to an allosteric enzyme
noncompetitive inhibitor
a substance that changes the shape of the enzyme, which prevents the active site from binding substrate properly
opitmum pH
the pH at which an enzyme is most active
optimum temp
the temp at which an enzyme is most active
positive regulator
a molecule that increases the reate of an enzyme-catalyzed rsn by making the catalysis more favorable
reversible inhibition
inhibition of an enzyme that is reversed by increasing the substrate concentration
simple enzyme
an enzme that is active as a polypeptide only
substrate
the molecule that reacts in the active site in an enzyme-catalyzed rxn
vitamins
organic molecules, which are essential for normal health and growth, obtained in small amounts from the diet
water-soluble vitamins
vitamins that are soluble in water, cannot be stored in the body, are easily destroyed by heat, ultraviolet light, and oxygen, and function as coenzymes
zymogen
an inactive form of an enzyme that is activated by removing a peptide portion from one end of the protein
acetyl CoA
a 2-C acetyl unit from oxidation of pyruvate that bonds to coenzyme A
ADP
adenosine diphosphate, a compound of adenine, a ribose sugar, and 2 phosphate grps, it is formed by the hydrolysis of ATP
aerobic
an oxygen-containing environment in the cells
amylase
an enzyme that hydrolyzes the glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides during digestion
anabolic rxn
a metabolic rxn that requires energy
anaerobic
a condition in cells when there is no oxygen
ATP
adenosine triphosphate, a high-energy compound that stores energy in the cells, sonsists of adenine, a ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups
catabolic rxn
a metabolic rxn that produces energy for the cell by the degradation and oxidation of glucose and other molecules
coenzyme A (CoA)
a coenzyme that transports acyland acetyl grps
Cori cycle
a cyclic process in which lactate produced in muscle is transferred to the liver to be synthesized to glucose, which can be used again by muscle
cytoplasm
the material in eukaryotic cells btwn the nucleus and the plasma membrane
cytosol
the gluid of the cytoplasm, which is an aqueous solution of electrolytes and enzymes
decarboxylation
the loss of a carbon atom in the form of CO2
digestion
the processes in the gastrointestinal tract that break down large food molecules to smaller ones that pass thru the intestinal membrane into the blood stream
FAD
a coenzyme (flavin adenine dinucleotide) for dehydrogenase enzymes that form C=C
fermentation
the anaerobic conversion of glucose by enzymes in yeast to yield alcohol and CO2
gluconeogenesis
the synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate compounds
glycogenesis
the synthesis of glycogen from glucose molecules
glycogenolysis
the breakdown of glycogen into glucose molecules
glycolysis
the 10 oxidation rxns of glucose that yield 2 pyruvate molecules
metabolism
all the chemical rxns in living cells that carry out molecular and energy transformations
mitochondria
the organelles of the cells where energy-producing rxns take place
NAD+
the hydrogen acceptor used in oxidation rxns that form carbon-oxygen double bonds
oxidation
the loss of hydrogen as hydrogen ions and electrons or the gain of oxygen by a substrate that is degraded to smaller molecules or a coenzyme
reduction
the gain of hydrogen ions and electrons or the loss of oxygen by a substrate or a coenzyme
ATP synthase (F0F1)
an enzyme complex that links the energy released by protons returning to the matrix w/the synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi. The F0 section contains the channel for proton flow, and the F1 section uses the evergy from the proton flow to drive the synthesis of ATP
chemiosmotic model
the conservation of energy from transfer of electrons in the electron transport chain by pumping protons into the intermembrane space to produce a proton gradient that provides the energy to synthesize ATP
citric acid cycle
a series of oxidation rxns in the mitochondria that convert acetyl CoA to CO2 and yield NADH and FADH2. It is also called the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the Krebs cycle
coenzyme Q (CoQ, Q)
a mobile carrier that transfers electrons from NADH and FADH2 to cytochrome b in complex III
cytochromes (cyt)
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons from QH2 to oxygen
electron carriers
a grp of proteins that accept and pass on electrons as they are reduced and oxidized. Most of the carriers are tightly attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane, but two are mobile carriers, which move electrons btwn the complexes containing the other carriers
electron transport chain
a series of rxns in the mitochondria that transfer electrons from NADH and FADH2 to electron carriers, which are arranged from higher to lower energy levels, and finally to O2, which produces H2O. Energy changes during these transfers provide energy for ATP synthesis
Fe-S (iron-sulfur) clusters
proteins containing iron and sulfur in which the iron ions accept electrons form FMNH2 and cytochrome b
FMN (flavin mononucleotide)
an electron carrier derived from riboflavin (vitamin B2) that transfers hydrogen ions and electrons from NADH entering in the electron transport chain
oxidative phosphorylation
the synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi using energy generated by the oxidation rxns in the electron transport chain
proton pumps
the enzyme complexes I, III, and IV that move protons from the matrix into the inermembrane space, creating a proton gradient
acidosis
low blood pH resulting from the formation of acidic ketone bodies
adipose tissue
tissues containing cells in which triacyglycerols are stored
beta (B) oxidation
the degradation of fatty acids that removes 2-C segments from an oxidized B carbon in the chain
chylomicron
lipoproteins formed by coating triacyglycerols with proteins for transport in the lymph and bloodstream
essential aa
an aa that must be obtained from the diet b/c it cannot be synthesized in the body
fat mobilization
the hydrolysis of triaclglycerols in the adipose tissue to yield fatty acids and glycerol for energy production
glucogenic aa
an aa that provides carbon atoms for the synthesis of glucose
ketogenesis
the pathway that converts acetyl CoA to 4-C acetoacetate and other ketone bodies
ketogenic aa
an aa that provides C atoms for the fatty acid synthesis or ketone bodies
ketone bodies
the products of ketogenesis: acetoacetate, B-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone
ketosis
a condition in which high levels of ketone bodies cannot be metabolized, leading to lower blood pH
lipogenesis
the synthesis of fatty acid in which 2-C acetyl units link together to yield palmitic acid
nonessential aa
an aa that can be synthesized by rsns including transamination of a-keto acids in the body
oxidative deamination
the loss of ammonium ion when glutamate is degraded to a-ketoglutarate
protein turnover
the amt of protein that we break down from our diet and utilize for synthesis of proteins and nitrogen-containing compounds
transamination
the transfer of an amino grp from an aa to an a-keto acid
urea cycle
ammonium ions from the degradation of aa's and CO2 form carbamoyl phosphate, which is converted to urea