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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the purpose of channel proteins in nerve cell membranes
allow regulated passage of ions in and out of the cell to maintain or create depolarisation
What is a membrane potential?
Charge difference between inside and outside of the cell: usually about 75mV
What is an action potential
Transient increase in membrane potential which activates a nerve impulse
List three means of removal of neurotansmitters from the synapse
Diffusion, enzymatic breakdown, active reabsorption
How much of the bodys glucose and oxygen does the brain use?
60% and 20% respectively
What does the brain use for fuel?
Glucose (ketone bodies as well during starvation)
Which two amino acids are the most abundant in the brain?
glutamate and aspartate
List five groups of neurotransmitters
acetyl choline; amino acids; biogenic amines; purine derivatives; peptides and proteins
Name two inhibitory neurotransmitters
glycine and 4-aminobutyrate (GABA)
What is another name for ionotrophic receptors
Ligand-gated ion channels
What is the usual approximate value of a cells membrane potential?
75mV
Is a cell potential negative on the inside or the outside of the cell?
Negative on the inside of the cell with respect to the outside
is nerve transmission faster in myelinated or unmyelinated nerve cells?
myelinated
In transmission of nerve impulses, hose is most energy expended?
Re-establishing resting membrane potential (using ATP dependent pumps)
What is the purpose of a synapse
Communication between a nerve cell and another nerve, a muscle or a gland
Name three amino acids which act as neurotransmitters
gluatmate, aspartate, glycine
From what are the purine derivative neurotransmitters derived?
adenosine
List five biogenic amines
Any five of GABA; dopa; dopamine; adrenaline; noradrenaline; serotonin; histamine
What are the two types of neurotransmitter receptors?
Ionotrophic and metabotrophic
What purpose does glucose serve in the brain besides energy production?
production of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine
Why can't fatty acids provide an energy source for the brain?
Fats can't cross the blood-brain barrier