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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List seven nitrogen containing compounds found in urine
urea, uric acid, ammonia, creatinine, indoles, porphyrins, amino acids
what will a plant based diet do to the pH of the urine
raises pH (decreases acidity)
what constituent in the urine indicates pregnancy
hCG (human chorionic gonadopropin)
What is the normal renal clearance of inulin
What condition should be considered as possible if a person has glucose in their urine?
Diabetes mellitus
name 2 hormones produced by the kidneys
erythropoietin, calcitriol
What hormone does renin directly activate
Angiotensin, which is then converted to angiotensin I and then to angiotensin II
What is the main stimulus for the production of the following substances: erythropoietin,renin
erythropoietin produced stimulated by hypoxia
renin production stimulated by low plasma sodium levels
What factors affect whether or not a particle will be filtered by the glomerulus
mass, charge, and shape
By what process are glucose and amino acids reabsorbed from the tubules
active transport
By what process are hydrogen and potassium ions secreted into the urine
active transport
list three substances which are passively reabsorbed
water, chloride ions, urea
name the three hormones which regulate calcium and phosphate ecretion
PTH, calcitonin, calcitriol
Which two hormones are predominantly responsible for regulating sodium ion retention
Aldosterone and ANP
Name the two main hormones which regulate water reabsorption
What substances does the kidney secrete in order to maintain pH levels?
hydrogen ions
What is taken into the blood to balance the charge of hydrogen ions secreted into the urine?
sodium ions
Name two substances which buffer the acid in the urine
phosphate and ammonia
Name five amino acids which supply ammonia in the kidney
glutamine, alanine, serine, glycine, aspartate
List four possible substrates of gluconeogenesis in the kidney
glutamine, lactate, glycerol, pyruvate
What gradient drives glucose reuptake
sodium ion concentration gradient
What effect does cortisol have on gluconeogenesis?
What process provides most of the energy needed by the kidney
oxidative metabolism of glucose, lactate, pyruvate
What effect does gluconeogenesis have on the pH of urine
raises pH by increasing ammonia production
In the liver, ammonia is converted to urea for excretion. Why is this not necessary in the kidney?
The ammonia produced in the kidney is directly excreted into the urine, and does not ned to travel via the blood stream.
In acidosis would you expect ammonia excretion to increase or decrease
List three enzymes of amino acid metabolism, found in high concentrations in the kidney
amino acid oxidases, amine oxidases and glutaminase
What two organs are predominantly responsible for maintaining pH of extracellular fluids in the body?
kidneys and lungs
Where are the hormones which regulate sodium reabsorption produced?
Aldosterone- adrenal cortex; ANP- atrium of the heart
Which two hormones stimulate reabsorption of calcium ions?
PTH, calcitriol
What is the function of erythropoietin?
stimulates erythrocyte production
Give two mens by which angiotensin II increases blood pressure
increases sodium ion and water retention; causes vasoconstriction.