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36 Cards in this Set

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Vagus Nerve
Conveys info about the stretching of stomach walls which leads to satiety
Splanchnic Nerves
Conveys info about the nutrient contents of the stomach
Duodenum
part of small intestine adjoining the stomach
-1st digestive site that absorbs lots of nutrients
-When distended leads to feelings of satiety
CCK
Cholecystokinin
-Limits meal size
-hormone released by duodenum
1)Closes sphincter muscle between stomach & duodenum so stomach fills more quickly
2)Stimulates vagus nerve
Insulin
-Enables sugar to enter cells--Stored as fat & carbs
-Sugar shock:Diabetics get hyperglycemia
-Increases before, during, and after a meal
-High insulin levels suppress appetitite
Lipostatic Theory
-Long term hunger regulation
-Fat monitoring system
-Body's fat cells produce leptin: the more fat cells, the more leptin
-High leptin levels=eat less, more active
-Certain levels trigger puberty
-High levels don't necessarily decrease appetite
-People who are obese are less sensitive to leptin
--Have genetic inability to produce leptin
Orexin
-Cells in Lateral Hypothalamus release Orexin(hypocretin)
-Orexin stimulates activity & onset of meals
-Cells increase release of Orexin only after prolonged food deprivation
-Orexin motivates starving animal to search for food but has little influence on most meals
Arcuate Nucleus
2 Inputs
(1)Hunger Signals:taste pathway, Ghrelin released

(2)Satiety Signals:CCK release, insulin levels, leptin levels

-Paraventricular Nucleus: Inhibits Lateral Hypothalamus
-Melanocortin=Satiety
-Neuropeptide Y=Overeating
Lateral Hypothalamus
Lesions=decrease eating
Reponse:
1)Taste pathway
2)Facilitates ingestion, swallow
3)Increases responses to senses
4)Increases food seeking behavior
5)Increases insulin secretion
6)Increases activation of digestion (stomach secretions)
Ventromedial Hypothalamus
Lesions=Overeating & Obesity

Ventral Noradrenergic Bundle
-eat normal but frequently
-increased insulin-gain weight even with restricted diet
-increased stomach secretions
Increase set point for weight
Role of Sex Hormones
-Estrogen stimulates growth of dendritic spines in hippocampus
-hormones promote reproductive behavior
-Female:enable copulation
-No estrogen=female genitals but no female behavior
Sensitive Period
3rd & 4th months of pregnancy
-SRY protein differentiates gonadal tissue into testes
-If female is injected with testosterone during sensitive period->Masculine behavior, inhibits female behavior
-If male castrated->Promotes female behavior
-Default setting is female
-Genetic female that lacks estrogen during sensitive period doesn't develop female sex behavior
Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior--Males
1)Medial Preoptic Area
--Sexual dimorphic Nucleus-- Larger in males than females
--Bilateral lesions abolish male copulatory behavior
2)Lateral Tegmental Field
--Some neurons only fire during copulatory behavior

-Increased levels of dopamine during sexual arousal--Very high during orgasm
-Endogenous opioids released
Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior--Females
1)Ventromedial Hypothalamus
-Center for female sex behavior
-Moderates Oxytocin release
2)Periaqueductal Gray
-Mediates influence of Ventromedial Hypothalamus
Role of Hormones--Males
-Testosterone-Promotes sexual behavior
-Oxytocin-Contraction of smooth muscles
-Prolactin-Produces inhibitory effect on sexual desire
-Refractory periods
-Coolidge effect
-Vasopressin-establishes long-term bonds
Role of Hormones--Females
-Estrogen & Progesterone-increased sexual behavior during ovulation
-Estrogen-Maternal behavior
-Oxytocin-Social interaction & maternal behavior-Contraction of smooth muscles-Establishes long-term bond
- Prolactin-milk production
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome
-Individual with XY but is insensitive to Androgen
-Develop as a woman without ovaries or uterus-testes stay internal
-default to female
-testes release enough estrogen to feminize the body
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
-Adrenal glands secrete abnormal amounts of androgens
-Males born with CAH develop normally
-Females can develop externall genitals
-1/3 feel homo/bisexual
Prenatal Events in Homosexuality
Stress
-corticosteroid release decreases testosterone release
-more stressful events reported by mothers of homosexual male child than of a heterosexual male child
Heredity in Homosexuality
-50% of identical twins identified selves as homosexual
-19% fraternal twins
-Higher incidence of homosexuality among maternal relatives of homosexual men
-Perhaps genes that promote homosexuality are advantageous to reproduction
Biological Causes-Homosexuality
-Too little testosterone in men, too much in women
-Male homosexuals are not masculines-Are feminized
-Females are defeminized & masculinized
-Prenatal hormonal exposure & heredity affect
Brain Structures-Homosexuality
Homosexual Males Have:
-Larger Anterior Commissure
-Larger Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
Individuals Have:
-Smaller neurons in 3rd interstitial nucleus of Anterior Hypothalamus
3 Primary Responses of Emotions
1)Behavioral
2)Autonomic
-SNS Increases, PNS Decreases
-Mobilization of glucose, HR & Respiration Increase, Decrease in digestion
3)Hormonal
-Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
-Adrenal glands secrete steroid hormones
James-Lange Theory
1)Cognitive Appraisal
2)Physiological Response (ANS)
3)Situations elicit behaviors
4)Brain receives sensory feedback from muscles & internal organs
Pure Autonomic Failure
-report same emotions as others
-can identify some emotions of others
-report feeling emotions less intensely
Cannon-Bard Theory
-Emotions and then physiological response
-Internal organs are insensitive & not able to respond quickly
-cutting nerves that give feedback from internal organs & brain didn't alter emotional behavior
Brain Mechanisms in Emotions
Right-Left Hemisphere
Behavioral Activating System(BAS)
-Left Hemisphere
-outgoing & happier

Behavioral Inhibition System(BIS)
-Right Hemisphere
-socially withdrawn & less satisfied with life
Central Nucleus
-Most important part of brain for expression of emotional responses provoked by aversive stimuli
-projects to regions of hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla
-Responsible for behavioral, autonomic, hormonal responses
-responsible for expression of emotional responses
Lesions to Amygdala
-The effects of emotions on memory
-Flashbulb memories
-The more damage to Amygdala, the less likely it will by that you'll remember emotionally charged memory
Aggression - Prefrontal Cortex
-Faulty emotional regulation
2 Primary Areas in Emotional Regulation
1)Orbitofrontal Cortex
2)Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex
Role of Serotonin
-Inhibits aggressive behaviors & risky behavior
-Tryptophan (in turkey) synthesizes into serotonin
-Problems: not all depression is aggressive
-Gene controls production of (MAO) which breaks down serotonin
-People with gene have smaller emotion-related brain structure & under-active impulse control circuitry
Disgust
-Provoked by bad taste or smell, or what we consider 'bad taste'
Neural Mechanisms
-Insular Cortex-Primary taste region
-Basal Ganglia
Happiness
Heredity
-50% of momentary happiness
-80% of set point for happiness
Neural Mechanisms
-Amygdala
-Prefrontal Cortex-right ventromedial cortex is involved in appreciating humor
Stress
-The action on a body of any system of balanced forces whereby strain or deformation results
Stress Response System
-HPA Axis: Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Adrenal Gland
Effects of Chronic Stress
-Long levels of stress damage the Hippocampus
-Dendrite & Axon Retraction
-Inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis
-Long term depression--opposite of longterm potentiation
General Adaptation Syndrome
1)Alarm Stage (initial response)
-Sympathetic nervous system arousal
2)Resistance Stage (Adaptation)
-release of cortisol
-anti-inflammatory
-immunosupression
3)Exhaustion
-resources depleted
-damage to hippocampus