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75 Cards in this Set

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When determining LD50 or LC50, what measures would you consider on the Y axis and X axis?
Y: % Mortality relative to control

X: Concentration log10
What does NOEC stand for?
No
Observed
Effects
Concentration
What does LD/LC50 and ED/EC50 stand for?
LD/LC = Letal Dose/Concentration

ED/EC = Effects Dose/Concentration
What is a PROBIT scale?
-an analytical technique
-percnt mortlity is plotted on a probit scale, which compresses the middle region and lengthens the low and high regions of the scale
-this usually results in a linear relationship between percent mortality and the log of the concentration
-this makes it much easier to fit a straight line to data
What is the difference between Gross Production (GP) and Net Production (NP).
GP - gross amount of photosynthesis

NP - photosynthesis less respiration
When compartment modelling, what inputs and outputs are usually considered?
Input
-light
-additional inputs (ie: bread)
-feeding

Outputs
-predation
-mortality
-respiration
-exports
How would you express PREDATION in the non-linear model?
F12=f'12(x1x2)

therefore
f'12=F12/[(x1)(x2)]
How would you express MORTALITY in the non-linear model?
F15=m15(x1)

therefore
m15=F15/(x1)
How would you express RESPIRATION in the non-linear model?
F10=r10(x1)

therefore
r10=F10/(x1)
How would you express EXPORT in the non-linear model?
F'10=e10(x1)

therefore
e10=F'10/(x1)
What is Standard Toxicity Testing?
-a defined sys (ie:beaker) exposed to series of doses at different levels
-checked to see the effects on organisms (ie:direct impact)
-difficult to apply these effects to the real world
What complications arise when attempting to apply lab results to the real world? [6]
1)Toxicant is not uniformly distributed in the natural environment.
-Organisms aren't uniformly distributed in environment

2)Biomagnification
-the higher you are in the trophic level, the higher concentration of toxins you will have
-different rates of turnover effects biomagnification

3)Transformation
-everything is changed by environment.
-eg:chemicals change, organisms mutate, etc.

4)Toxicity depends on the chemistry or nature of the environment
-the presence of a chmical in the environment may reduce or boost the toxicity effects of another chemical

5)Organisms evolve
-therefor selection for resistance/tolerance takes place

6)Age/stage of organisms life is to be considered
Define Acute Toxicity testing.

Define Chronis Toxicity testing.
Acute: exposure for 96hrs or less

Chronis: exposure for at least 10% of organisms life span
In a typical terrestrial ecosystem, give some examples of the organisms you would expect to see in AUTOTROPHS.
-trees
-bushes
-herbs
-grasses
-etc.
In a typical terrestrial ecosystem, give some examples of the organisms you would expect to see in HERBIVORES
-rodents
-ungulates
-birds
-insects
-etc.
In a typical terrestrial ecosystem, give some examples of the organisms you would expect to see in DETRITIVORES?
-earthworms
-nematodes
-diptera (fly) larvae
-coleoptera (beetles)
-etc.

**initial stage of breakdown**
In a typical terrestrial ecosystem, give some examples of the organisms you would expect to see in CARNIVORES
-carnivora
-birds
-insects
-etc.
In a typical terrestrial ecosystem, give some examples of the organisms you would expect to see in SECONDARY CARNIVORES
-nematode
-coleoptera
-mites
-etc.
In a typical terrestrial ecosystem, give some examples of the organisms you would expect to see in DECOMPOSERS
-fungi
-bacteria
-etc.
In a typical aquatic ecosystem, give some examples of the organisms you would expect to see in AUTOTROPHS.
-algae
-bacteria
-etc.
In a typical aquatic ecosystem, give some examples of the organisms you would expect to see in HERBIVORES
-crustaceae
-protozoan
-rotifera
-molluscs
-etc.
In a typical aquatic ecosystem, give some examples of the organisms you would expect to see in CARNIVORES
-crustaceae
-tunicates
-fish
-etc.
In a typical aquatic ecosystem, give some examples of the organisms you would expect to see in DETRITIVORES
-insects
-sponge
-molluscs
-echinoderms
-oligochaetes
-polychaetes
-cnidaria
-etc.
Why is the knowledge of organisms important in understanding an ecosystem?
-although an organism may not have a direct impact on NRG production, they may have functions that have other important bi-products

eg: mussels do shit for energy production, but have a huge effect on Phosphorus sediment production, which is very imp for all other organisms
In general, does the ocean have high or low productivity?
-low
-only does 1-400g/m2/year
In aquatic systems, how is energy generally dispersed?
-more NRG is retained in the food web, less energy is moved to the detritus web

**However, detritus web has a large biomass despite the low input because bottom eaters are lazy as shit, allowing stuff to accumulate**
In terrestrial systmes, how is energy generally dispersed?
-more energy to the detritus
-less energy to the grazing food web

**Despite the large total plant biomass, only a fraction of this is available for production (ie: the leaves)... wood isn't the most useable thing**
What is the matrix supporting framework in Deepwater systems?
-water
-sediments
-usually define ecosystem by physical and chemical props
What is the matrix supporting framework in Forest systems?
-plants
-soil
-usually define ecosystem by dominant plants
If looking for contaminants of an ecosystem, what compartment would you look in?
-detritus since it is a 'bio sink'
What are some characteristics of PRODUCERS(autotrophs) of Deep Water ecosystems?
-small and numerous
-small biomass (for floating)
-little storage component
-rapid growth/turnover
What are some characteristics of PRODUCERS(autotrophs) of Forest ecosystems?
-large and few
-large biomass
-large storage component (the wood)
-slow growth/turnover
What are some characteristics of CONSUMERS(heterotrophs) of Deep Water ecosystems?
-larger size than producers therefore can filter feed
-increase of size as you go down the food chain
What are some characteristics of CONSUMERS(heterotrophs) of Forest ecosystems?
-smaller in size than producers
What is the Consumer:Producer biomass ratio in Deep Water ecosystems?
-near 1
-may have inverted biomass pyramid
What is the Consumer:Producer biomass ratio in Forest ecosystems?
-much less than 1
-always conventional biomass pyramid
What is the main energy pathway in Deep Water ecosystems?
-grazing food web
What is the main energy pathway in Forest ecosystems?
-detritus food web
What are the main limits to productivity of autotrophs in Deep Water ecosystems?
-nutrient inputs
-temperature
-pH
What are the main limits to productivity of autotrophs in Forest ecosystems?
-water availability
-temperature
-nutrients
What factors limit cycling of nutrients within a deep water ecosystem?
-thermocline (distance/depth)
-sediment sink
What factors limit cycling of nutrients within a forest ecosystem?
-water for decomposers
-soil sink
-leaching
-wood
What important physical and chemical variables should be considered in deep water ecosystems?
-respiratory gases
-pH
-temperature
-salinity
What important physical and chemical variables should be considered in forest ecosystems?
-water
-temperature
Whats the difference between FORCED FLOWS and UNFORCED FLOWS?
Forced Flows: energy flows originating from outside of the system

Unforced Flows: energy flows originating from within the system
What factors are considered when determining the fate of pollutants in the enviroment? [4]
1)What pollutants?

2)What is the source?
-single static source?
-mobile?(eg: spraying crops)
-imported pollutants?

3)Rate of emission and concentration of each contaminant?
-use data to calculate amount/unit time in environment

4)Where is it released into the environment?
-in the air? = large spread
-in the water? = usually stay in the water... surface or ground water
-in the solid deposition
What factors are considered when following the movement of pollutants? [4]
1)Phase transfer of pollutants
-chem characteristics allow pollutant to move quite freely between soil, air, water, biota and sediment quite easily given the right conditions

2)Transport of Pollutants
-diffusion of pollutants due to difference of conc. gradient
-BULK TRANSPORT/ADVECTIVE FLOW
--wind, water current and shit able to move a massive amount of shit **this is what lots of scientists try to contain!!!**

3)Sedimentation
-from air (dust particles), water

4)Biotic Transport
-organisms get shit from 1 place and move it to another
-interested in the flow along the food web (biomagnification)

**see Sept 27/05 hand out**
What are the 5 basic steps taken to create compartment model?
1)Define our system as a set of compartments
-flows b/w compartments
-flow in (FORCING) and out of the system

2)Quantify the amounts in the compartments and flow b/w compartments and in/out of the system
-can quantify as a rate of energy flow, amount of contaminant... which ever one is chosen, must be consistent throughout

3)Typically makes a steady-state system
- input = output

4)Develope a series of equations to define flows b/w compartments or out of the system
-eg: non linear feeding functions

5)Can change parameters to see how the system reacts/behaves
Where would you use Numerical Integration?
-used when analysing non linear functions
-when non linear, time steps may not be sensitive enough to accurately represent what is happening at that moment in time
-by integrating it, you can basically analyse what you want at that specific point in time
What can you do to make your compartment system more realistic?
1)Make the forcing flow a seasonal variable

2)Make the feeding function more accurate

3)Look at impacts of pollutants
-eutrophicaton
-impacts of short lived pollutants (effects % mortality)
-slow build up of pollutant (effects respiration and mortality)
What are some problems encountered when dealing with models?
1)Timing of events and recovery
-certain animals can only mate at specific times during the year, models don't account for this
-recovery may be delayed b/c of seasonal reproduction

2)Oversimplification of compartments within models
-eg: made linear, no difference betwen big and small detritus, etc.
BRIEFLY outline the problem of salt contamination from potash mines.
-tons of salt biproduct after mining
-precipitation would spread the salt everywhere, killing shit as it goes
-a dyke was built to contain the salt to an area, but seepage occurred
-suggested using a tarp to cover the salt pile from precipitation but had to know who salt was to move through the soil first... therefore had to follow the flow of water and some diffusion
-2 opposing flows of water: 1)Precipition, moving water deeper; 2)Capillary action, moving water to the surface
-a column experimen was done to measure where salt is in the column
-used the TRASEE/TRACON model (measure flow between 5cm triangles)
-by doing this, determined that sewage sludge performs better then surface soil in containing and neutralizing salt contaminants
When Designing Studies, what should you consider?
1)You'll need to quantify the contaminants
-see where they accumulate (either in soil or taxa/fauna)
-many ways to do this

2)Species Abundance on the:
*Organism level
-enzyme induction
-respiratory rate
-change in physiology or behavior
-somantic growth
-lipid level
-mortality

*Population level
-same as organism level
-*selection of characteristics for greater tolerance
-*population growth rates
-*density
-competitive ability, exposes a lot of community interaction
-movement

*Community level

*Ecosystem level
-competition
-predator/prey effects

***KEY MEASURE = ABUNDANCE!!! ie: look at this to determine effects***
When looking at ABUNDANCE, what kind of species are of particular interest?
1)Indicator species
-presence(invader) of species. Eg: polychaetes indicate organic enrichment and low oxygen levels
-absence (intolerant) of species. Eg: no crustacean indicates acidity, cadmium, high temp, etc.

2)Key Species
-has great effect on trophic structure
-without it, trophic structure changes dramatically

3)Bread and Butter species
-spp's that have a very utilitarian reason... but not the most imporant
-eg:no fish = no fishing, no ducks = no hunting
-they are important to us!!!
When observing species diversity, what factors are of particular interest?
1)Spp's richness - # of spp's
-decrease relative to contaminant level

2)Relative abundance
-diversity measures: include relative abundance of spp's and many more
-decrease in relation to pollution

3)Dominance
-measure of dominance of the most abundant spp's, many measures
-increases in relation to pollution
What are RANK ABUNDANCE MODELS?
-plots log abundance vs. rank
-these graphs are able to show relation between spp's diversity, spp richness, and dominance
What are MICROCOSMS?
-typically deal with aquatic systems (1-1000L in size
-will simulate a simple ecosystem
What are MESOCOSMS?
-more outdoors related than microcosms (1m^3-300m^3)
-still water or flowing water
-even more diverse (includes a lot more than microcosms
When constructing a study design of pollutants on biota, what effects should be considered? [4]
1)Toxic effects
-whole range of things (eg:unknown, lethal to some orgamisms?, sublethal effects, indirect effects, etc.)

2)Which biota is to be studied? Which compartment?
-single species?
-community level?
-etc.

3)How are we going to assess the impacts?
-if lethal: changes in population or biomass
-if sublethal: changes in behavior, fecundity, growth rates, physiological measures, etc.

4)Response to pollution - How to assess
-we're gonna have to make some comparisons (BACI)
-REPLICATION, will tell us the consistency of the response
-RECOVERY: see how shit responds after treatment

**see pg.5 in lab 5 (tut)**
What is a FUGACITY MODEL?
-a theoretical model in which an equilibrium is achieved between air, soil, water, sediment, biota, etc.
-fugacity is like a pressure
-therefore, if there is an unbalance of fugacity, shit would move between phases until fugacity/pressure are the same
What 10 Principles should be followed when generating a good study design?
1)Be able to state CONCISELY to someone else what question you are asking

2)Take replidate samples witin each comination of time, location and any other controlled variable

3)Take an equal number of randomly allocated replicate samples for each combination of controlled variables

4)Make sure you have a control

5)Need to conduct preliminary experiments to get preliminary data. Can't do a BACI exp in a vacuum

6)Verify that your sampling vethod is sampling what you want to sample

7)Break the sample area up into relatiely homogeneous subareas

8)Estimate the number of replications necessary to achieve required precision

9)Test data to see whether the error variation is homogeneous, normally distributed, and independent of the mean. Transform data as needed

10)After choosing the best statistical method to test hypothesis, stick with the result

**Only need to know #1,2,3,5,7 and 8**
What factors are considered when determining # of samples or sample sizes?
-depends on variablility of the data
-depends on frequency of sampling
-depends on level of precision deemed acceptable
******************************
n=[(CV)/E]^2

where:
n=number of samples
E=precision
CV=variability
According to Odum, what trends are expected to happen in a stressed ecosystem? [16]
******************************
Energentics
1)Community respiration increases
2)Production/respiratoin ratio becomes unbalanced
3)P/B and R/B ratios increase as energy is diverted from growth and reproduction to compensating for stress
4)Importance of auxillary energy increases (import becomes necessary)
5)Export or unused primary production increases
******************************
Nutrient Cycling
6)Nutrient turnover increases
7)One way transport (horizontal) increases, and internal cycling (vertical) decreases
8)Nutrient loss increases
******************************
Community Structure
9)Species diversity decreases, dominance increases
10)Proportion of r-strategists increases (life spans decrease, size of organisms decreases, turnover of organisms increases)
11)Food chains shorten
******************************
General system level trends
12)Ecosystem becomes more open
13)Natural successional trends are reversed
14)Efficiency of resource use decreases
15)Parasitism and other negative interactions increase
16)Functional properties are more robust than structural composition (spp's composition)
Define a BASELINE STUDY
-data are collected and analyzed for the pupose of defining the present state of the biological community, environment or both
-usually some environmental change is anticipated
Define an IMPACT STUDY
-purpose is to determine whether a specified impact causes change in a biological community and, if it does, to describe the nature of that change
Define a MONITORING STUDY
-has the pupose of detecting a change from the present state
-if the data used are from sampling to detect change in a the biological community, it is a BIOLOGICAL MONITORING study
When would you use an OPTIMAL IMPACT STUDY DESIGN?
-impact hasn't occurred
-when and where is known
-control area available
-#1 of 5
When must the IMPACT BE INFERRED FROM TEMPORAL CHANGE ALONE?
-impact has already occured
-when and where is known
-there is no control area
-#2 of 5
When would you use BASELINE OR MONITORING STUDY?
-impact hasn't already occurred
-when and where is not known
-#3 of 5
When must the IMPACT BE INFERRED FROM SPATIAL PATTERN ALONE?
-impact has already occurred
-when and where is known
-#4 of 5
When is 'WHEN AND WHERE' the question?
-impact has already occurred
-when and where is not known
-#5 of 5
Define an Aquifer
-permeable sediment
Define an Aquitard
-impermeable sediment
List 4 similarities found between deep water and terrestrial forest ecosystems
1) same functional components

2)need same vital nutrients

3)Regulated by light and temperature in the same sort of way

4)same stratified management
-an uppper autotophic stratum, the grazing food web
-a lower heterotrophic stratum, the detritus food web
List 8 differences found between deep water and terrestrial forest ecosystems.
1)matrix supporting framework
2)producer characteristics
3)consumer characteristics
4)consumer/producer biomass
5)main energy pathway
6)main limits to productivity of autotrophs
7)factors limiting cycling of nutrients within ecosystem
8)important pysical and chemical variables