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106 Cards in this Set

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tropomyosin
when the muscle is at rest the myosin binding sites in the actin molucle are blocked
troponin complex
regulatroy protiens on the tropomyosin and moves it when calcium is present
sarcomeres
contains the the myosin and the actin filaments that do not get smaller them selves but compact and make the entire sarcomere get smaller
irish potato is
a modified stem
sweet potato
a modified root
indeterminate growth
growth with no genetically defined limit
vascular cambium
lateral meristem, gives rise to secondary xylem (wood) and phloem
root hair
epidermis tissue take up water and nutrients
Apicial meristem
-ground, dermal ,vascular tissue form cylider
-supply cells to grow in length
collenchyma
( ground tissue) support -> primary wall allow elongation very thick.
Dermal tissue/epidermus
-outside
-prevents pathenogens,
-waxy cuticle,
-root hairs, (water and nutrition uptake)
ground tissue
-everything but dermal and vascular ( fibers and schelroids)
support
lateral meristem
-grow in girth
-replace epidermis with bark
-cork and vascular cambium -locaated paralel to the axix of secondary growth
meristem
-divids the quisenct center
-at tips of branches,rootes, and shoots
-allows for elongation in indeterminate growth with embryonic tissue.
organ
roots
shoots
leaves
lignen
support xylem
support in cellulose matrix
Parenchyma
(ground tissue)
general cell
packing and storage
photosythesis
primary cell wall
everything else
phloem
-move sugar
-no nucleus, ribsosomes, vacuol
-not complete for less resistance
-sieve tubes for sugar and
photosythate transport
schlerenchyma
(ground tissue)
dead, not expanding
protection, tuff wall
2ry wall with lignan
fibers and schlerid
rope and hemp
xylem
-moves water and nutrients
-dead at maturity
-lignified 2ry wall
-triechid cells, vessel element cells and fiber cells
Root cap
protects the Apical meristem
secrets mucigel for lubricant
Root hair
-epidermus tissue
-takes up water and nutrients
-increase surface area for absorption
lateral roots
-roots that arise for the pericyle
-cell division from the endodermous
protoderm
a primary meristem from apical merstem the makes dermal tissue or the epidermous
ground meristem
A primary meristem derived from the apical meristem and giving rise to primary ground tissues.
procambium
That primary meristem from the AM which develops into primary vascular tissue.
pericycle
A tissue typically of roots which is found between the endodermis and the phloem, and which gives rise to branch (lateral) roots.
quiescent center
That region of apical meristems, particularly in roots, in which there is relatively little mitotic activity. divides every couple of weeks , embyotic cells.
(other parts of meristem divid 2x a day)
1.node
2. internodes
3. axullary bud
1.point where leaf attaches
2. between the (1)
3. b/w leaf and stem
stomata
under leaf open/close for water retention and exchange of co2 for photsythesis
trichome
a hair-like epidermal outgrowth with diverse form, structure, and function
intercalery meristem
-between the roots and the shoot
-in grass
phase change
change between juvi and adult morphotype
1.primary growth
2.secondary growth
1. legnth
2. girth (usually in woody plants)
cambium
lateral meristem between wood and bark or xylem and phloem that makes new wood and bark for secondary growth
cork
cylinder meristem tissue in plants that produce cork cells to replace the epidermus during secondary growth
rhizosphere
The soil zone immediately surrounding plant roots, which is modified by the increased number of microorganisms (eg Rhizobia) that live there, in association with plant roots.
apical dominance
auxin from terminal bud inhibits auxilary bud growth and cytokinen from shoots counter act the auxin and tell buds to grow so it looke like an X-mas tree if terminal bud removed then it would be more bushy and rectangularish
cork cambium
lateral meristem
-covers outside of 2ry tissue to replace the epidermus and bark
- fills in the ruff slits after 2ry growth.
vasculare cambium
lateral meristem
-makes 2ndry xylem (wood) and phloem
lecithal
blaco holes that allow gas exchange through the waxy cuticle
secondary xylem
xylem tissue formed by the vascular cambium during secondary growth in a vascular plant
secondary phloem
Phloem tissue formed by the vascular cambium during secondary growth in a vascular plant.
asexual
fast,
identical
however can be killed by one disease
sexual repro.
eggs and sperm haploid -> diploid embryo
hybrid vigor
increased performance of hybrids over purebreds
pollen
The cells that carry the male DNA of a seed plant.
seeds
A seed is the ripened ovule of gymnosperm or angiosperm plants
-reproduction
- apoxis is formation w/o sex
stamen
has pollen
male repro part
has filment and anther
carpel
vase shaped
femal part
has stigma, style , and ovary
petal
One of a circle of modified leaves immediately outside the reproductive organs of a flower; usually brightly colored.
sepal
modified leaf around flower
flower
angiosperm for repro ... specialized shoot
-The reproductive part of a plant. It is usually composed of petals, sepals, stamens, and a pistil.
anther
pollen is produced there on the filiment part of the stamen
filiment
stalk of the stamen
stigma
femal part of carpel
sticky to recieve pollen
may have recepters
style
the neck of the carpel
leads to overies
ovary
contains the seeds or the eggs
ABC model
Sepal->Petal->Steman-> Carpel
-BB-
AACC
A is sepal
AB is petal
BC is Steman
C carpel
Gymnosperm
A plant whose seeds are not enclosed in flowers. Most produce their seeds on the surface of the scales of female cones and are pollinated by wind.
1. agiosperms
2. gymnosperm
1.pollen,enclosed seeds,flower, fruit
2.pollen, naked seeds,no flower, cones
pollen tube
A hypha-like germination tube from a pollen grain that transmits the male (micro)gametophytes to an embryo sac in an ovule.
micropyle
A small opening in the surface of a plant ovule through which the pollen tube passes through prior to fertilization to deliver the sperm
generative nucleus
divide and produce 2 sperm
double fertilization
-when 2 sperm enter
- one united with the egg form diploid zygot
- other fuses with the 2 nuclei center for a triploid nucleus which makes endosperm for food in teh ctyledons
-purpose to sync ebryo development and food storage for it.
endosperm
-triploid- 3 nucleous
-mature seed lack cuz its all in the cotyledon
(diploid zygote is the other sperm)
Dioecious
unisex flower on serperate plants
Monoecieous
-if both unisex flowers are on the same plant
-like cereal or maize
primula
short shoots clustered flowers
pin and thrum
-PIn has higher carpels and lower stamen
- Thrum higher stamen and lower carpel and really heavy pollen
- purpose .. to prevent selfing
gametophyte
That plant generation which gives rise to the gametes by means of mitosis. Typically haploid.

gametes
haploid
mitosis
sporophyte
The diploid generation in the life cycle of a plant, and that produces haploid spores by meiosis.
tapetum
nutrition in the anther
Exine
outercase that has the parent code that surronds the haploid pollen
Dormancy
a delay in the growth of viable seeds because of unfavorable environmental conditions.
scorification
seed germinate after it leaves the GI tract
Monocot
dicot
-have 1 cotyledon scattered phloem
-have 2 cotyledon and a ring of phloem
companion cell
is in the phloem and has the only nucleus, ribosomes, and vacuol for the incomplete cells to share
cotyledon
leaves with endosperm for food
hypocotyls
the stem if the new germinating plant
radicle
embryonic root
spore
from diploid sporophyte, mitoticly divided to haploid inorder to make haploid gametophyte,
tropism
stimuli either neg or pos / away or near
phototropism
light
gravitropism
gravity ... roots always with gravity and shoot ans leaves always against
thigmotropism
thouch .. vines lach on ... leaves get smaller
hydrotropism
react with water
asymetric elongation
makes guard cells
one cell has more cytoplasm then the other in mitosis
auxin
hormone determines distribution of lateral root from the AM
acid growth
expansins an acid growth protein
spit out proton to break the excisting layer and then when it grows fills in the slits it made
apical meristems
supply plant with cells to grow in legnth
cell plate/phragmoplast
plate that seperates daughter cells determines shape
cell wall
-primary wall thin flexible
-secondary wall strong rigid comonent of wood
cellulose
the polysacheride of wood
cortical microtubules
lignification of 2nry wall orders cellulose synthase to put down cellulose
organ
specialized center with different tissues and functions
roots shoots and leaves
preprophase band
-microtubules that leave spindles for mitosis
- determines where the phragmoplast will go for cell division
spindle
serperate chromosome for cell division
tissue
cells with function and similar structure
phragmoplast
A disk or plate-like structure composed of microtubules which shows the site of new wall formation
turgor
pressure in a vacual
vacuole
surrounded by tonoplast wall
place where dump acids and waste
in fruits that is the juice
adds in secondary growth
plant cell
vacual
cell wall
chloroplast
vascular tissue
xylem and phloem
schleriod
nut shell
apple core
cell of schlerenchyma
gibberllins
hormon that tricks graps that it was fertalized and then conitues to make a fruit without the seed