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44 Cards in this Set

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Phylum Porifera
sponges
Branch
Radiata vs. Bilateria
Subkingdom
Parazoa vs. Eumetazoa
Grade
Coelomata vs. Pseudocoelomata vs. Acoelomata
Subgrade
Schizocoela vs. Enterocoela
spicules
microscopic needles...protein network of spongin fibers
Phylum cnidaria
jellyfish, sea anemones, corals
nematocysts
stinging cells with capsules inside...on tentacles
gastrovascular cavity
incomplete digestive tract...single opening serves as both mouth and anus
Phylum platyhelminthes
flatworms, flukes, tapeworms
flame cells
excretory system of phylum platyhelminthes
proglottid
each segement of a worms body (phylum platyhelminthes)
Phylum Nematoda
round worms
bilateral symmetry
two similar halves...right and left side
radial symmetry
any number of slices may be made that break organism into two similar sides
spherical symmetry
a cut through ANY axis of the organism produces similar halves
asymmetrical symmetry
a cut through an organism never produces two identical halves
cephalization
the development of a distinct head
diploblastic
two fundamental body layers
ectoderm
outer layer of cells...forms "skin"
endoderm
inner layer of cells...forms a digestive tract
triploblastic
three fundamental body layers
mesoderm
middle layer of cells...forms the muscles
spiral egg cleavage
cells in different layers are offset from one another
radial cleavage
cells line up side by side and one on top of another
egg cleavage
the division of the fertalized egg (zygote)
protosome
when blastopore becomes the mouth
blastopore
indentation in the side of the ball of cells (blastula)
deuterostome
when blastopore becomes the anus
acoelomate
if the mesoderm packs the internal area so that there is no body cavity
pseudocoelomate
if a body cavity exists but it is not lined by tissues from the mesoderm
coelomate
if a body cavity exists and it is lined by tissues from the mesoderm
shizocoelomate
if the mesoderm splits and surrounds the inside of the body cavity
enterocoelomate
if the mesoderm pouches off and surround the body cavity
determinate egg cleavage
at the four cell stage, cell fate is determined such that any one cell would develop into 1/4 of organism
indeterminate egg cleavage
at the four cell stage, cell fate is not yet determined such that any one cell would develop into the entire organism
true segmentation
(a.k.a. metamerism)...animal's body is divided into obvious repeating units; must include segmentation of deep tissues
hydrostatic skeleton
body fluids act as support...e.g. worms
exoskeletons
tough support systems on the outside of the organisms...e.g.shells of crabs, snails, and clams
endoskeletons
internal support systems...e.g. muscles, glands, & organs of humans
incomplete digestive tract
only one opening; food and waste move throught the same opening
complete digestive tract
two openings for mouth and anus; food and waste move in one direction
closed circulatory system
blood is confined to vessels; blodd stays in blood vessels throughout the entire circuit of the body
open circulatory system
blood does not circulate within vessels and allows blood flow between organs into large open spaces called sinuses