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38 Cards in this Set

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allometry
differential growth rates in an organisms body
allopatric speciation
geographic speciation due to physical isolation
analogous
serve the same function but evolved independently
apomorphy
derived character state
bottleneck effect
reduction in gene pool, and the changes in gene frequency that result
convergent evolution
The independent evolution of structural or functional similarity in two or more unrelated or distantly related lineages or forms that is not based on genotypic similarity and common ancestry;
divergent evolution
a trait of common evolutionary origin evolves to serve different purposes
exaptation
the current function was not original function after the trait evolved
founder principle
the founding population does not represent a random sample from the original population
genetic isolation
produce steril offspring, cannot breed
homologous
structures that are alike because of shared ancestory, may have different function
macroevolution
speciation, happens in large populations
microevolution
changes in allele frequencies
ontogeny
describes origin and development of an organism
plesiomorphy
ancestral trait
symplesiomorphy
shared trait because of ancestory, not indicative of close phylogenic relationship
synapomorphy
shared derived trait
ephemereal
existing only briefly
muellerian mimicry
many unrelated species have the same warning pattern
batesian mimicry
a species immitates an actually dangerous species
sympatric
speciation without geographic isolation
heterochrony
a developmental change in the timing of events, leading to changes in size and shape
homoplasies
apparent homologies that are not congruent with the plurality of characters
homoplasy
possession by two or more species of a similar or identical character state that has NOT been derived by both species from their common ancestor

embraces convergence and evolutionary reversal
vicariance
separation of a continuously distributed ancestral population into separate populations

due to physical barrier
endemic
native to a particular geographic area
promisians
premonkeys
hominoids
apes and hominids
hominids
humans and their direct ancestors
directional selection
fixation due to relative fitness
balancing selection
2 or more alleles maintained due to selection, such as heterozygote advantage and frequency dependent selection
autopolyploidy
doubling of chromosomes in one lineage
allopolyploidy
doubling of chroms after hybridization between two lineages
Cuvier
catastrophism - every boundary between strata are due to flood, etc, killing many species
Hutton
Gradualism - changes are ongoing but slow
Lyell
Uniformitarianism (modified gradualism) - geologic processes are the same today as in the past
LaMarck
Acquired Characteristics - ex. giraffe stretching neck -> taller necks in offspring
Malthus
essay on the principles of populations

nature acts to limit population numbers